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Marine Biology

, Volume 160, Issue 10, pp 2591–2596 | Cite as

Sub-lethal exposure to ultraviolet radiation reduces prey consumption by Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua)

  • Yuichi FukunishiEmail author
  • Howard I. Browman
  • Caroline M. F. Durif
  • Reidun M. Bjelland
  • Steven D. Shema
  • David M. Fields
  • Anne Berit Skiftesvik
Original Paper

Abstract

Levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B: 280–315 nm) reaching the earth’s surface have increased over the past few decades due to ozone depletion. It is well documented that exposure to UV-B radiation increases mortality in marine fish larvae. However, few studies have examined sub-lethal effects of UV-B radiation such as, for example, the possibility that it affects prey consumption by fish larvae. Atlantic cod larvae were exposed to a sub-lethal level of ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B: 280–315 nm) for 15 h. After the exposure, rotifers (4/mL) were fed to cod larvae at three different post-exposure intervals (20 min, 3 and 6 h). Trials were replicated three times for each post-exposure interval. The number of rotifers in the gut and the percent of empty guts (number of fish with empty gut/number of fish examined × 100) were analyzed. Results were compared to those of unexposed fish (the control treatment). UV-B exposed cod larvae had consumed significantly fewer rotifers than control fish at all post-exposure intervals. There was no significant difference in the frequency of empty guts between fish in the UV-B treatment versus fish in the control treatment at any of the post-exposure time points (although the difference at 20 min post-exposure was borderline significant). These observations suggest that cod larvae exposed to sub-lethal levels of UV-B have lower net energy gain which may lead to reduced growth rate and possibly poorer survival.

Keywords

Fish Larva Prey Consumption Indian Major Carp Exposure Tank Reduce Prey Consumption 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful for the technical support provided by the staff of the Institute of Marine Research’s Austevoll Research Station. YF was supported by the FY 2010 Researcher Exchange Program between the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and the Research Council of Norway; Project number: 201981. This research was supported by the Norwegian Institute of Marine Research (Fine-scale interactions in the plankton-Project 11529—to HIB) and the Research Council of Norway project “Cascading effects of climate change and UV envirotoxins on the nutritional quality of the food base in marine ecosystems (Project # 178731/S40 to HIB).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuichi Fukunishi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Howard I. Browman
    • 2
  • Caroline M. F. Durif
    • 2
  • Reidun M. Bjelland
    • 2
  • Steven D. Shema
    • 3
  • David M. Fields
    • 3
  • Anne Berit Skiftesvik
    • 2
  1. 1.Maizuru Fisheries Research StationKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  2. 2.Austevoll Research StationInstitute of Marine ResearchStorebøNorway
  3. 3.Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean SciencesEast BoothbayUSA

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