Marine Biology

, Volume 160, Issue 3, pp 703–718 | Cite as

Spatio-temporal distribution and migration of adult male loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Mediterranean Sea: further evidence of the importance of neritic habitats off North Africa

  • Paolo CasaleEmail author
  • Daniela Freggi
  • Angelo Cinà
  • Massimiliano Rocco
Original Paper


Ten adult male loggerhead sea turtles, captured by trawlers or dip nets, were satellite-tracked from a neritic foraging ground in the Mediterranean in order to investigate adult spatio-temporal distribution and breeding migration. Five individuals migrated to potential breeding sites in Libya and one to Greece. The results complement previous studies and show that: (1) the Tunisian shelf may be more important for turtles from Libyan rookeries than previously thought; (2) male tracks corroborate a conservation hotspot previously identified for juveniles; (3) the north African coast represents a preferred migratory corridor, unless open sea routes are more direct; (4) adult males may exhibit high fidelity to relatively small areas, without evident seasonal differences; (5) adults home ranges were smaller and more neritic than juveniles frequenting the same area; (6) males may frequent multiple courtship areas; (7) the average remigration interval of males frequenting this region is longer than 1 year.


Green Turtle Libya Dive Duration Loggerhead Turtle Leatherback Turtle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We are greatly indebted to all the fishermen who collaborated to this study and to the volunteers who supported WWF Italy’s Sea Turtle Centre in Lampedusa. We also thank R. Argano and M. Oliverio for their continuous support. This study was partially funded by WWF Italy and by the Italian Ministry of Environment (MATTM). M. Arendt and other two anonymous reviewers provided comments that greatly improved a first version of the manuscript. Finally, we thank A. F. Rees for English revision.

Supplementary material

227_2012_2125_MOESM1_ESM.doc (2.2 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 2,289 kb)


  1. Arendt MD, Segars AL, Byrd JI, Boynton J, Schwenter JA, Whitaker JD, Parker L (2012a) Migration, distribution, and diving behavior of adult male loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) following dispersal from a major breeding aggregation in the Western North Atlantic. Mar Biol 159:113–125. doi: 10.1007/s00227-011-1826-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arendt MD, Segars AL, Byrd JI, Boynton J, Whitaker JD, Parker L, Owens DW, Blanvillain G, Quattro JM, Roberts MA (2012b) Distributional patterns of adult male loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the vicinity of Cape Canaveral, Florida, USA during and after a major annual breeding aggregation. Mar Biol 159:101–112. doi: 10.1007/s00227-011-1793-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beavers SC, Cassano ER (1996) Movements and dive behavior of a male sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea) in the eastern tropical Pacific. J Herpetol 30:97–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bentivegna F (2002) Intra-Mediterranean migrations of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) monitored by satellite telemetry. Mar Biol 141:795–800. doi: 10.1007/s00227-002-0856-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bentivegna F, Valentino F, Falco P, Zambianchi E, Hochscheid S (2007) The relationship between loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) movement patterns and Mediterranean currents. Mar Biol 151:1605–1614. doi: 10.1007/s00227-006-0600-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blanvillain G, Pease AP, Segars AL, Rostal DC, Richards AJ, Owens DW (2008) Comparing methods for the assessment of reproductive activity in adult male loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta at Cape Canaveral, Florida. Endanger Species Res 6:75–85. doi: 10.3354/esr00136 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bolten AB (1999) Techniques for measuring sea turtles. In: Eckert KL, Bjorndal KA, Abreu-Grobois FA, Donnelly M (eds) Research and management techniques for the conservation of sea turtles. IUCN/SSC Marine Turtle Specialist Group, Washington, DC, pp 110–114Google Scholar
  8. Bowen BW, Bass AL, Soares L, Toonen RJ (2005) Conservation implications of complex population structure: lessons from the loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta). Mol Ecol 14:2389–2402. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02598.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bradai MN, Jribi I (2010) Tunisia. In: Casale P, Margaritoulis D (eds) Sea turtles in the Mediterranean: distribution, threats and conservation priorities. IUCN, Gland, pp 245–256Google Scholar
  10. Broderick AC, Coyne MS, Fuller WJ, Glen F, Godley BJ (2007) Fidelity and over-wintering of sea turtles. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 274:1533–1538. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2007.0211 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cardona L, Revelles M, Carreras C, San Felix M, Gazo M, Aguilar A (2005) Western Mediterranean immature loggerhead turtles: habitat use in spring and summer assessed through satellite tracking and aerial surveys. Mar Biol 147:583–591. doi: 10.1007/s00227-005-1578-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cardona L, Revelles M, Parga ML, Tomas J, Aguilar A, Alegre F, Raga A, Ferrer X (2009) Habitat use by loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta off the coast of eastern Spain results in a high vulnerability to neritic fishing gear. Mar Biol 156:2621–2630. doi: 10.1007/s00227-009-1288-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carreras C, Pascual M, Cardona L, Aguilar A, Margaritoulis D, Rees A, Turkozan O, Levy Y, Gasith A, Aureggi M, Khalil M (2007) The genetic structure of the loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) in the Mediterranean as revealed by nuclear and mitochondrial DNA and its conservation implications. Conserv Genet 8:761–775. doi: 10.1007/s10592-006-9224-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Casale P (2010) Italy. In: Casale P, Margaritoulis D (eds) Sea turtles in the Mediterranean: distribution, threats and conservation priorities. IUCN, Gland, pp 135–148Google Scholar
  15. Casale P (2011) Sea turtle by-catch in the Mediterranean. Fish Fish 12:299–316. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2010.00394.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Casale P, Margaritoulis D (2010) Sea turtles in the Mediterranean: distribution, threats and conservation priorities. IUCN, GlandGoogle Scholar
  17. Casale P, Freggi D, Basso R, Argano R (2005) Size at male maturity, sexing methods and adult sex ratio in loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from Italian waters investigated through tail measurements. Herpetol J 15:145–148Google Scholar
  18. Casale P, Lazar B, Pont S, Tomas J, Zizzo N, Alegre F, Badillo J, Di Summa A, Freggi D, Lackovic G, Raga JA, Rositani L, Tvrtkovic N (2006) Sex ratios of juvenile loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta in the Mediterranean Sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 324:281–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Casale P, Cattarino L, Freggi D, Rocco M, Argano R (2007a) Incidental catch of marine turtles by Italian trawlers and longliners in the central Mediterranean. Aquat Conserv Mar Freshw Ecosyst 17:686–701. doi: 10.1002/aqc.841 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Casale P, Freggi D, Basso R, Vallini C, Argano R (2007b) A model of area fidelity, nomadism, and distribution patterns of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the Mediterranean Sea. Mar Biol 152:1039–1049. doi: 10.1007/s00227-007-0752-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Casale P, Mazaris AD, Freggi D, Basso R, Argano R (2007c) Survival probabilities of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) estimated from capture-mark-recapture data in the Mediterranean Sea. Sci Mar 71:365–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Casale P, Freggi D, Gratton P, Argano R, Oliverio M (2008) Mitochondrial DNA reveals regional and interregional importance of the central Mediterranean African shelf for loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta). Sci Mar 72:541–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Casale P, Affronte M, Insacco G, Freggi D, Vallini C, d’Astore PP, Basso R, Paolillo G, Abbate G, Argano R (2010) Sea turtle strandings reveal high anthropogenic mortality in Italian waters. Aquat Conserv Mar Freshw Ecosyst 20:611–620. doi: 10.1002/aqc.1133 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Casale P, Affronte M, Scaravelli D, Lazar B, Vallini C, Luschi P (2012a) Foraging grounds, movement patterns and habitat connectivity of juvenile loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) tracked from the Adriatic Sea. Mar Biol. doi: 10.1007/s00227-012-1937-2 Google Scholar
  25. Casale P, Broderick AC, Freggi D, Mencacci R, Fuller WJ, Godley BJ, Luschi P (2012b) Long-term residence of juvenile loggerhead turtles to foraging grounds: a potential conservation hotspot in the Mediterranean. Aquat Conserv Mar Freshw Ecosyst 22:144–154. doi: 10.1002/aqc.2222 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Costello MJ, Coll M, Danovaro R, Halpin P, Ojaveer H, Miloslavich P (2010) A census of marine biodiversity knowledge, resources, and future challenges. PLoS ONE 5:e12110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Coyne MS, Godley BJ (2005) Satellite Tracking and Analysis Tool (STAT): an integrated system for archiving, analyzing and mapping animal tracking data. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 301:1–7. doi: 10.3354/meps301001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Doyle TK, Houghton JDR, O’suilleabhain PF, Hobson VJ, Marnell F, Davenport J, Hays GC (2008) Leatherback turtles satellite-tagged in European waters. Endanger Species Res 4:23–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Echwikhi K, Jribi I, Bradai MN, Bouain A (2010) Gillnet fishery—loggerhead turtle interactions in the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia. Herpetol J 20:25–30Google Scholar
  30. Eckert SA, Moore JE, Dunn DC, van Buiten RS, Eckert KL, Halpin PN (2008) Modeling loggerhead turtle movement in the Mediterranean: importance of body size and oceanography. Ecol Appl 18:290–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Frazier J (2003) Prehistoric and ancient interactions between humans and marine turtles. In: Lutz PL, Musick JA, Wyneken J (eds) The biology of sea turtles. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 1–38Google Scholar
  32. Fuentes M, Limpus CJ, Hamann M (2011) Vulnerability of sea turtle nesting grounds to climate change. Glob Change Biol 17:140–153. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02192.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Godley BJ, Richardson S, Broderick AC, Coyne MS, Glen F, Hays GC (2002) Long-term satellite telemetry of the movements and habitat utilisation by green turtles in the Mediterranean. Ecography 25:352–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Godley BJ, Broderick AC, Glen F, Hays GC (2003) Post-nesting movements and submergence patterns of loggerhead marine turtles in the Mediterranean assessed by satellite tracking. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 287:119–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hamann M, Godfrey MH, Seminoff JA, Arthur K, Barata PCR, Bjorndal KA, Bolten AB, Broderick A, Campbell LM, Carreras C, Casale P, Chaloupka M, Chan SKF, Coyne MS, Crowder LB, Diez CE, Dutton PH, Epperly SP, FitzSimmons NN, Formia A, Girondot M, Hays GC, Cheng IS, Kaska Y, Lewison R, Mortimer JA, Nichols WJ, Reina RD, Shanker K, Spotila JR, Tomas J, Wallace BP, Work TM, Zbinden J, Godley BJ (2010) Global research priorities for sea turtles: informing management and conservation in the 21st century. Endanger Species Res 11:245–269. doi: 10.3354/esr00279 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hamza A (2010) Libya. In: Casale P, Margaritoulis D (eds) Sea turtles in the Mediterranean: distribution, threats and conservation priorities. IUCN, Gland, pp 157–170Google Scholar
  37. Hatase H, Matsuzawa Y, Sakamoto W, Baba N, Miyawaki I (2002) Pelagic habitat use of an adult Japanese male loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta examined by the Argos satellite system. Fish Sci 68:945–947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hawkes LA, Broderick AC, Godfrey MH, Godley BJ (2009) Climate change and marine turtles. Endanger Species Res 7:137–154. doi: 10.3354/esr00198 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hawkes LA, Witt MJ, Broderick AC, Coker JW, Coyne MS, Dodd M, Frick MG, Godfrey MH, Griffin DB, Murphy SR, Murphy TM, Williams KL, Godley BJ (2011) Home on the range: spatial ecology of loggerhead turtles in Atlantic waters of the USA. Divers Distrib 17:624–640. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2011.00768.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hays GC, Webb PI, Hayes JP, Priede IG, French J (1991) Satellite tracking of a loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) in the Mediterranean. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 71:743–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hays GC, Åkesson S, Godley BJ, Luschi P, Santidrian P (2001a) The implications of location accuracy for the interpretation of satellite-tracking data. Anim Behav 61:1035–1040. doi: 10.1006/anbe.2001.1685 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hays GC, Broderick AC, Glen F, Godley BJ, Nichols WJ (2001b) The movements and submergence behaviour of male green turtles at Ascension Island. Mar Biol 139:395–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hays GC, Fossette S, Katselidis KA, Schofield G, Gravenor MB (2010) Breeding periodicity for male sea turtles, operational sex ratios, and implications in the face of climate change. Conserv Biol 24:1636–1643. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2010.01531.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hochscheid S, Bentivegna F, Bradai MN, Hays GC (2007) Overwintering behaviour in sea turtles: dormancy is optional. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 340:287–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hochscheid S, Bentivegna F, Hamza A, Hays GC (2010) When surfacers do not dive: multiple significance of extended surface times in marine turtles. J Exp Biol 213:1328–1337. doi: 10.1242/jeb.037184 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Houghton JDR, Broderick AC, Godley BJ, Metcalfe JD, Hays GC (2002) Diving behaviour during the internesting interval for loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta nesting in Cyprus. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 227:63–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. IUCN (2011) IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2011.2. Accessed April 2012
  48. James MC, Eckert SA, Myers RA (2005a) Migratory and reproductive movements of male leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). Mar Biol 147:845–853. doi: 10.1007/s00227-005-1581-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. James MC, Myers RA, Ottensmeyer CA (2005b) Behaviour of leatherback sea turtles, Dermochelys coriacea, during the migratory cycle. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 272:1547–1555. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2005.3110 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. James MC, Ottensmeyer CA, Myers RA (2005c) Identification of high-use habitat and threats to leatherback sea turtles in northern waters: new directions for conservation. Ecol Lett 8:195–201. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2004.00710.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jribi I, Bradai MN, Bouain A (2007) Impact of trawl fishery on marine turtles in the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia. Herpetol J 17:110–114Google Scholar
  52. Jribi I, Echwikhi K, Bradai MN, Bouain A (2008) Incidental capture of sea turtles by longlines in the Gulf of Gabes (South Tunisia): a comparative study between bottom and surface longlines. Sci Mar 72:337–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lazar B, Borboroglu PG, Tvrtkovic N, Ziza V (2003) Temporal and spatial distribution of the loggerhead sea turtle, Caretta caretta, in the eastern Adriatic Sea: a seasonal migration pathway? In: Seminoff JA (ed) Twenty-second annual symposium on sea turtle biology and conservation. NOAA technical memorandum NMFS-SEFSC-503, pp 283–284Google Scholar
  54. Limpus CJ, Limpus DJ (2001) The loggerhead turtle, Caretta caretta, in Queensland: breeding migrations and fidelity to a warm temperate feeding area. Chelonian Conserv Biol 4:142–153Google Scholar
  55. Limpus CJ, Miller JD, Parmenter CJ, Reimer D, McLachlan N, Webb R (1992) Migration of green (Chelonia mydas) and loggerhead (Caretta caretta) turtles to and from eastern Australian rookeries. Wildl Res 19:347–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lopez-Mendilaharsu M, Rocha CFD, Miller P, Domingo A, Prosdocimi L (2009) Insights on leatherback turtle movements and high use areas in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 378:31–39. doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2009.07.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Luschi P, Hughes GR, Mencacci R, De Bernardi E, Sale A, Broker R, Bouwer M, Papi F (2003) Satellite tracking of migrating loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) displaced in the open sea. Mar Biol 143:793–801. doi: 10.1007/s00227-003-1117-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Marcovaldi MA, Lopez G, Soares L, Lima E, Thomé J, Almeida A (2010) Satellite-tracking of female loggerhead turtles highlights fidelity behavior in northeastern Brazil. Endanger Species Res 12:263–272. doi: 10.3354/esr00308 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Margaritoulis D (2005) Nesting activity and reproductive output of loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, over 19 seasons (1984–2002) at Laganas Bay, Zakynthos, Greece: the largest rookery in the Mediterranean. Chelonian Conserv Biol 4:916–929Google Scholar
  60. Margaritoulis D, Panagopoulou A (2010) Greece. In: Casale P, Margaritoulis D (eds) Sea turtles in the Mediterranean: distribution, threats and conservation priorities. IUCN, Gland, pp 85–112Google Scholar
  61. Margaritoulis D, Argano R, Baran I, Bentivegna F, Bradai MN, Caminas JA, Casale P, De Metrio G, Demetropoulos A, Gerosa G, Godley B, Houghton J, Laurent L, Lazar B (2003) Loggerhead turtles in the Mediterranean Sea: present knowledge and conservation perspectives. In: Bolten AB, Witherington B (eds) Biology and conservation of loggerhead sea turtles. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, pp 175–198Google Scholar
  62. Plotkin PT, Owens DW, Byles RA, Patterson R (1996) Departure of male olive ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) from a nearshore breeding ground. Herpetologica 52:1–7Google Scholar
  63. Rees AF, Jony M, Margaritoulis D, Godley BJ (2008) Satellite tracking of a green turtle, Chelonia mydas, from Syria further highlights importance of North Africa for Mediterranean turtles. Zool Middle East 45:49–54Google Scholar
  64. Revelles M, Cardona L, Aguilar A, San Felix M, Fernandez G (2007a) Habitat use by immature loggerhead sea turtles in the Algerian Basin (western Mediterranean): swimming behaviour, seasonality and dispersal pattern. Mar Biol 151:1501–1515. doi: 10.1007/s00227-006-0602-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Revelles M, Isem-Fontanet J, Cardona L, Felix MS, Carreras C, Aguilar A (2007b) Mesoscale eddies, surface circulation and the scale of habitat selection by immature loggerhead sea turtles. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 347:41–57. doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2007.03.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rice MR, Balazs GH (2008) Diving behavior of the Hawaiian green turtle (Chelonia mydas) during oceanic migrations. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 356:121–127. doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2007.12.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Rodgers AR, Carr AP, Beyer HL, Smith L, Kie JG (2007) HRT: home range tools for ArcGIS. Version 1.1. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Centre for Northern Forest Ecosystem Research, Thunder BayGoogle Scholar
  68. Royer F, Lutcavage M (2008) Filtering and interpreting location errors in satellite telemetry of marine animals. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 359:1–10. doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2008.01.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Saied A, Maffucci F, Hochscheid S, Dryag S, Swayeb B, Borra M, Ouerghi A, Procaccini G, Bentivegna F (2012) Loggerhead turtles nesting in Libya: an important management unit for the Mediterranean stock. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 450:207–224. doi: 10.3354/meps09548 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sakamoto W, Bando T, Arai N, Baba N (1997) Migration paths of the adult female and male loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta determined through satellite telemetry. Fish Sci 63:547–552Google Scholar
  71. Schofield G, Katselidis KA, Dimopoulos P, Pantis JD, Hays GC (2006) Behaviour analysis of the loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta from direct in-water observation. Endanger Species Res 2:71–79. doi: 10.3354/esr002071 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Schofield G, Bishop CM, MacLean G, Brown P, Baker M, Katselidis KA, Dimopoulos P, Pantis JD, Hays GC (2007) Novel GPS tracking of sea turtles as a tool for conservation management. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 347:58–68. doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2007.03.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Schofield G, Bishop CM, Katselidis KA, Dimopoulos P, Pantis JD, Hays GC (2009a) Microhabitat selection by sea turtles in a dynamic thermal marine environment. J Anim Ecol 78:14–21. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2656.2008.01454.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Schofield G, Lilley MKS, Bishop CM, Brown P, Katselidis KA, Dimopoulos P, Pantis JD, Hays GC (2009b) Conservation hotspots: implications of intense spatial area use by breeding male and female loggerheads at the Mediterranean’s largest rookery. Endanger Species Res 10:191–202. doi: 10.3354/esr00137 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Schofield G, Hobson VJ, Fossette S, Lilley MKS, Katselidis KA, Hays GC (2010a) Fidelity to foraging sites, consistency of migration routes and habitat modulation of home range by sea turtles. Divers Distrib 16:840–853. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2010.00694.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Schofield G, Hobson VJ, Lilley MKS, Katselidis KA, Bishop CM, Brown P, Hays GC (2010b) Inter-annual variability in the home range of breeding turtles: implications for current and future conservation management. Biol Conserv 143:722–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Seminoff JA, Dutton PH (2007) Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in the Gulf of California: distribution, demography, and human interactions. Chelonian Conserv Biol 6:137–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Shaver DJ, Schroeder BA, Byles RA, Burchfield PM, Pena J, Marquez R, Martinez HJ (2005) Movements and home ranges of adult male Kemp’s ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) in the Gulf of Mexico investigated by satellite telemetry. Chelonian Conserv Biol 4:817–827Google Scholar
  79. Tomás J, Gozalbes P, Raga JA, Godley BJ (2008) Bycatch of loggerhead sea turtles: insights from 14 years of stranding data. Endanger Species Res 5:167–169. doi: 10.3354/esr00116 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. van Dam RP, Diez CE, Balazs GH, Colon Colon LA, McMillan WO, Schroeder B (2008) Sex-specific migration patterns of hawksbill turtles breeding at Mona Island, Puerto Rico. Endanger Species Res 4:85–94. doi: 10.3354/esr00044 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. van de Merwe JP, Ibrahim K, Lee SY, Whittier JM (2009) Habitat use by green turtles (Chelonia mydas) nesting in Peninsular Malaysia: local and regional conservation implications. Wildl Res 36:637–645. doi: 10.1071/wr09099 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wallace BP, DiMatteo AD, Hurley BJ, Finkbeiner EM, Bolten AB, Chaloupka MY, Hutchinson BJ, Abreu-Grobois FA, Amorocho D, Bjorndal KA, Bourjea J, Bowen BW, Duenas RB, Casale P, Choudhury BC, Costa A, Dutton PH, Fallabrino A, Girard A, Girondot M, Godfrey MH, Hamann M, Lopez-Mendilaharsu M, Marcovaldi MA, Mortimer JA, Musick JA, Nel R, Pilcher NJ, Seminoff JA, Troeng S, Witherington B, Mast RB (2010a) Regional management units for marine turtles: a novel framework for prioritizing conservation and research across multiple scales. PLoS ONE 5:e15465. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015465 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wallace BP, Lewison RL, McDonald SL, McDonald RK, Kot CY, Kelez S, Bjorkland RK, Finkbeiner EM, Helmbrecht S, Crowder LB (2010b) Global patterns of marine turtle bycatch. Conserv Lett 3:131–142. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2010.00105.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wallace BP, DiMatteo AD, Bolten AB, Chaloupka MY, Hutchinson BJ, Abreu-Grobois FA, Mortimer JA, Seminoff JA, Amorocho D, Bjorndal KA, Bourjea J, Bowen BW, Briseño Dueñas R, Casale P, Choudhury BC, Costa A, Dutton PH, Fallabrino A, Finkbeiner EM, Girard A, Girondot M, Hamann M, Hurley BJ, López-Mendilaharsu M, Marcovaldi MA, Musick JA, Nel R, Pilcher NJ, Troëng S, Witherington B, Mast RB (2011) Global conservation priorities for marine turtles. PLoS ONE 6:e24510. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024510 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wibbels T (2003) Critical approaches to sex determination in sea turtles. In: Lutz PL, Musick JA, Wyneken J (eds) The biology of sea turtles, vol II. CRC marine biology series. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 103–134Google Scholar
  86. Wibbels T, Owens DW, Amoss MS (1987) Seasonal changes in the serum testosterone titers of loggerhead sea turtles captured along the Atlantic coast of the United States. In: Witzell WN (ed) Ecology of east Florida sea turtles, Miami, FL, pp 59–64Google Scholar
  87. Witt MJ, Hawkes LA, Godfrey MH, Godley BJ, Broderick AC (2010) Predicting the impacts of climate change on a globally distributed species: the case of the loggerhead turtle. J Exp Biol 213:901–911. doi: 10.1242/jeb.038133 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wright LI, Fuller WJ, Godley BJ, McGowan A, Tregenza TOM, Broderick AC (2012a) Reconstruction of paternal genotypes over multiple breeding seasons reveals male green turtles do not breed annually. Mol Ecol 21:3625–3635. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2012.05616.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wright LI, Stokes KL, Fuller WJ, Godley BJ, McGowan A, Snape R, Tregenza T, Broderick AC (2012b) Turtle mating patterns buffer against disruptive effects of climate change. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 279:2122–2127. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2011.2285 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Zbinden JA, Aebischer A, Margaritoulis D, Arlettaz R (2007) Insights into the management of sea turtle internesting area through satellite telemetry. Biol Conserv 137:157–162. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2007.01.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Zbinden JA, Aebischer A, Margaritoulis D, Arlettaz R (2008) Important areas at sea for adult loggerhead sea turtles in the Mediterranean Sea: satellite tracking corroborates findings from potentially biased sources. Mar Biol 153:899–906. doi: 10.1007/s00227-007-0862-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Zbinden JA, Bearhop S, Bradshaw P, Gill B, Margaritoulis D, Newton J, Godley BJ (2011) Migratory dichotomy and associated phenotypic variation in marine turtles revealed by satellite tracking and stable isotope analysis. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 421:291–302. doi: 10.3354/meps08871 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paolo Casale
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
    Email author
  • Daniela Freggi
    • 3
  • Angelo Cinà
    • 1
  • Massimiliano Rocco
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biology and Biotechnologies “Charles Darwin”University of Rome “La Sapienza”RomeItaly
  2. 2.WWF ItalyRomeItaly
  3. 3.Sea Turtle Rescue CentreWWF ItalyLampedusaItaly
  4. 4.RomeItaly

Personalised recommendations