Marine Biology

, Volume 153, Issue 4, pp 735–743 | Cite as

Prolonged exposure to low dissolved oxygen affects early development and swimming behaviour in the gastropod Nassarius festivus (Nassariidae)

  • H. Y. Chan
  • W. Z. Xu
  • P. K. S. Shin
  • S. G. CheungEmail author
Research Article


Effects of low dissolved oxygen on early development and swimming behaviour of veliger larvae of the scavenging gastropod Nassarius festivus were studied. Embryonic development was significantly delayed when dissolved oxygen level was reduced to 3.0 mg O2 l−1 and no embryo hatched successfully at 0.5 mg O2 l−1. Veliger larvae hatched at 4.5 mg O2 l−1 had significantly smaller velar lobe, shell length and shell width. Median 48-h LC50 value of the veliger larvae was estimated at 1.25 mg O2 l−1 with lower swimming speed (swimming velocity and dispersal velocity) being recorded for the survivors exposed to reduced oxygen levels. The percentage of veliger larvae that developed into crawling juveniles was significantly reduced and metamorphosis was delayed at 4.5 mg O2 l−1 whereas all larvae at 3.5 mg O2 l−1 died before they underwent metamorphosis. Juveniles developed at 4.5 mg O2 l−1 were also smaller than those at 6.0 mg O2 l−1. Results indicated that dissolved oxygen levels well above hypoxia levels (2.8 mg O2 l−1) have already had significant impact on the hatching success and larval development in gastropods, which may lead to long-term decreases in population growth.


Oxygen Level Swimming Speed Shell Length Experimental Tank Dissolve Oxygen Level 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We thank Desmond O’Toole for constructive comments of an earlier draft of the manuscript. The work described in this paper was fully supported by a strategic research grant from City University of Hong Kong (Project No. 7001947).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Y. Chan
    • 1
  • W. Z. Xu
    • 1
  • P. K. S. Shin
    • 1
  • S. G. Cheung
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biology and ChemistryCity University of Hong KongKowloon TongHong Kong

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