Marine Biology

, Volume 149, Issue 2, pp 285–295 | Cite as

Invasion patterns inferred from cytochrome oxidase I sequences in three bryozoans, Bugula neritina, Watersipora subtorquata, and Watersipora arcuata

  • Joshua A. MackieEmail author
  • Michael J. Keough
  • Les Christidis
Research Article


Nucleotide variation in cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) was used to examine population structure in three invasive bryozoans: Bugula neritina (Linnaeus, 1758), Watersipora subtorquata (d’Orbigny, 1852), and W. arcuata (Banta, 1969). These species are found on ship hulls and have a short (≤2 days) larval phase. Samples were collected from 1998–2001 at multiple sites in Australia, and in Hong Kong, New Zealand, Hawaii, California, Curaçao, and England. B. neritina is known to include three cryptic species, including species Type S (Davidson and Haygood in Biol Bull 196:273–280, 1999) which occurs on the east and west coasts of the USA. One haplotype recorded previously in the USA, S1, was found to be widespread, occurring throughout Australia and in Hong Kong, Curaçao, Hawaii, and England. W. subtorquata, a Caribbean–Atlantic species which has invaded southern Australia, New Zealand, and California, had low nucleotide diversity in these areas (π=0.0016±0.0014), consisting of three haplotypes connected by one or two nucleotide mutations. W. arcuata, an Eastern-Pacific native, had comparatively high diversity (π=0.0221±0.0115) in introduced populations from Australia and Hawaii. In each species, identical haplotypes were identified on separate coastlines providing evidence of widespread, rather than genetically independent, introductions. The major contrast in nucleotide diversity suggests that different propagule-source models explain introductions.


Mismatch Distribution Ship Hull Antifouling Paint Single Haplotype Sudden Expansion Model 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We thank A. Boxshall, P. Dyrynda, D. Gordon, T. Harder, J. Lewis, K. Wasson, and C. Zabin for providing specimens. W. Aguirre, J. Benzie, P. Bock, J. Norman, G. Ruiz, S. Smith, J. True and E. Wildburg provided helpful discussions and advice. Three anonymous reviewers provided helpful comments on the manuscript. This study was funded by a collaborative research grant through Melbourne University and Museum Victoria; J. Mackie was supported by a Melbourne University Research Scholarship and David Hay Award. These experiments comply with current laws of Australia.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joshua A. Mackie
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michael J. Keough
    • 2
  • Les Christidis
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Ecology and EvolutionState University of New YorkStony BrookUSA
  2. 2.Zoology DepartmentUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.Australian MuseumSydneyAustralia

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