Early motor signs of autism spectrum disorder in spontaneous position and movement of the head
- 67 Downloads
We examined the characteristics of spontaneous movements at 9–20 weeks postterm age in very low birth-weight infants who later developed autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We analyzed video recordings of spontaneous movements of 39 children who had no clinical issues [typically developing (TD) group], 21 children who showed developmental delay, and 14 children who were diagnosed with ASD (ASD group) at 6 years of age. Head position in each video frame was classified by visual inspection. The percentage of midline head position (PMHP) and number of changes in head position were calculated. Spontaneous limb movements were quantified using six indices. The values of PMHP were significantly lower in the ASD group than in the TD group. The lower PMHP during early infancy is associated with later development of ASD. Poorer performance in maintaining midline position of the head at this period may distinguish infants who later develop ASD from those who show TD.
KeywordsVery low birth-weight infants Autism spectrum disorder Early motor sign Spontaneous movements Head position
The work reported in this paper was supported by a MEXT Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (no. 24119002 to G. T. and no. 16K16620 to H. G.).
- Bly L (1994) Motor skills acquisition in the first year: an illustrated guide to normal development. Therapy Skill Builders, TexasGoogle Scholar
- Einspieler C, Prechtl HFR, Bos AF, Ferrari F, Cioni G (2004) Prechtl’s method on the qualitative assessment of general movements in preterm, term and young infant. Mac Keith, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Russell G, Rodgers LR, Ford T (2013) The strengths and difficulties questionnaire as a predictor of parent-reported diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PLoS One 8:e80247. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080247 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Zappella M, Einspieler C, Bartl-Pokorny KD, Krieber M, Coleman M, Bölte S, Marschik PB (2015) What do home videos tell us about early motor and socio-communicative behaviours in children with autistic features during the second year of life—an exploratory study. Early Hum Dev 91:569–575CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar