This study evaluates the content and formation of free and bound monochloropropanediol (MCPD) and bound glycidol (GE) in fine bakery wares from the German market. The analytical screening revealed, that free 3-MCPD can be quantified in products with low water and fat content, which are produced using high baking temperatures. Concentrations resulted to be 10.0 µg/kg (wafers), 14.1 µg/kg (crispbread) and 22.8 µg/kg (rusk) and are thus judged to be of minor significance when it comes to a potential introduction of a combined maximum level for free and bound species. As exception, considerable amounts of free 3-MCPD (maximum level of 265.4 µg/kg) were only quantified in cinnamon stars containing glycerine as additive. As expected, MCPDE were only quantified in products produced with refined vegetable oil (short bread, puff pastry, caramel biscuits, speculoos, cake, wafers, wholemeal biscuits and rusk). GE levels have already been significantly reduced compared to former studies, one cake showed a maximum content of 127.8 µg/kg. A model baking trial using 13C-3-MCPDE spiked butter as fat component in shortbread confirmed that free 3-MCPD and 2-MCPD, 3-MCPDE, 2-MCPDE or GE are not endogenously formed in marketable browned biscuits. A thermal or lipase-catalysed release of free 3-MCPD from its fatty acid esters can be excluded.
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We thank Nadine Karcher and Francesca Zamolo for their excellent technical support.
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Stauff, A., Schneider, E. & Heckel, F. 2-MCPD, 3-MCPD and fatty acid esters of 2-MCPD, 3-MCPD and glycidol in fine bakery wares. Eur Food Res Technol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-020-03546-4
- Free 2-MCPD
- Free 3-MCPD
- Glycidyl ester
- Fine bakery wares