A systematic comparison of 17 cultivated herbaceous peony seed based on phytochemicals and antioxidant activity

Abstract

Herbaceous peony is widely cultivated around the world because of its ornamental and medicinal value, nevertheless, there has not been systematic studies on its seeds. In this study, the fatty acids, total phenol content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFOC), and secondary metabolites content of 17 cultivars seed were systematically investigated. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, and HRSA. The results showed that the fatty acids of herbaceous peony were different among cultivars, besides, the ALA content of ‘HSHEBT’ and ‘MZL’ has a significantly higher content of ALA and LA, respectively. The metabolite profiles of 17 cultivars were similar and paeoniflorin was the most abundant secondary metabolites in all samples. In addition, the extracts of seeds showed good antioxidant activity in DPPH (32.82–42.6 μmol TE/g DW), ABTS (16.87–57.63 μmol TE/g DW), FRAP (14.55–49.23 μmol TE/g DW) and HRSA (3.16–52.97%). The 17 cultivars were classified into 4 clusters according to the fatty acids, TPC, TFOC, and metabolites. Cluster I showed the highest average value of linolenic acid, TPC, and secondary metabolite content among all clusters, which is consist of ‘XN’ and ‘HSHEBT’ and they are to be a potential resource of functional food. Overall, the resulted showed metabolites and fatty acid content various between herbaceous peony cultivars, which can be the resource of healthy vegetable oil and food with antioxidant effect in the future.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

References

  1. 1.

    Ma G et al (2017) Characters determination of herbaceous oil physicochemical property and comparative analysis of peony seed oil. J Chinese Cereals Oils Assoc 32(3):130–134

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Liu Pu et al (2019) Characterization of Paeonia ostii seed and oil sourced from different cultivation areas in China. Ind Crop and Prod 133:63–71

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Yan ZG et al (2019) Phenotypic characteristics and fatty acid composition of seeds from different herbaceous peony species native to China. Chem Biodiver 16(3):e1800589

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Liu Pu et al (2017) Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of oil from the seed kernels and isolation of monoterpene glycosides from the oil residue of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. Ind Crop and Prod 107:260–270

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Delgado GE et al (2017) Omega-6 fatty acids: opposing associations with risk—the ludwigshafen risk and cardiovascular health study. J Clin Lipidol 11:1082–1090

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Thesing CS et al (2018) Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid levels in depressive and anxiety disorders. Psychoneuroendocrino 87:53–62

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Mallia S, Piccinali P, Rehberger B et al (2008) Determination of storage stability of butter enriched with unsaturated fatty acids/conjugated linoleic acids (UFA/CLA) using instrumental and sensory methods. Int Dairy J 18(10–11):0–993

  8. 8.

    Lee T, Spankulova Z, Orazbayeva U et al (2016) Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Content in Soybean Oil. Adv J Food Sci Technol 12(10):568–573

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Qian D et al (2019) Effects of hot and cold-pressed processes on volatile compounds of peanut oil and corresponding analysis of characteristic flavor components. LWT 112

  10. 10.

    Shi XH et al (2018) Seed setting characteristics and seed oil quality of Paeonia lactiflora. Chin Agric Sci Bull 34(19):71–75

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Mureșan V et al (2016) In situ analysis of lipid oxidation in oilseed-based food products using near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics: The sunflower kernel paste (tahini) example. Talanta 155:336–346

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Salmanzadeh R et al (2018) Propyl gallate (PG) and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) may alter the potential anti-cancer behavior of probiotics. Food Biosci 24:37–45

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Aghdam AA et al (2019) Microfluidic-based separation and detection of synthetic antioxidants by integrated gold electrodes followed by HPLC-DAD. Microchem J 149:1–8

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Arivalagan M et al (2018) Extraction of phenolic compounds with antioxidant potential from coconut (Cocos nucifera, L.) testa and identification of phenolic acids and flavonoids using UPLC coupled with TQD–MS/MS. LWT Food Sci Technol 92:116–126

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Maria I, Paschalina C, Loukia E (2018) Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds: oleuropein, phenolic acids, phenolic alcohols and flavonoids from olive leaves and evaluation of its antioxidant activities. Ind Crop and Prod 124:382–388

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Nihan K et al (2018) Differences in antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of commercial and homemade tomato pastes. J Saudi Society Agric Sci 19(4):249–254

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Shahidi F et al (2015) Phenolics and polyphenolics in foods, beverages and spices: Antioxidant activity and health effects—a review. J Funct Foods 18:820–897

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Embuscado ME (2015) Spices and herbs: Natural sources of antioxidants—a mini review. J Funct Foods 18:811–819

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Wang L et al (2020) Effects of maturity on seed quality of five conventional japonica rice cultivars. J Zhejiang A&F Univ 37(1):151–157

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Stevenson DG et al (2007) Oil and tocopherol content and composition of pumpkin seed oil in 12 cultivars. J Agr Food Chem 55(10):4005–4013

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Zhang F et al (2018) Seed-specific expression of heterologous gene DGAT1 increase soybean seed oil content and nutritional quality. Chin J Biotechnol 34(9):1478–1488

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Tan Z et al (2018) Oil content and fatty acid composition of Paeonia lactiflora Seeds. For Res 31(3):45–50

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Durante M et al (2017) Seeds of pomegranate, tomato and grapes: an underestimated source of natural bioactive molecules and antioxidants from agri-food by-products. J Food Compos Anal 63:65–72

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Constanze et al (2019) Effect of alpha-linolenic acid in combination with the flavonol quercetin on markers of cardiovascular disease risk in healthy, non-obese adults: a randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled crossover trial. Nutrition 58:47–56

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Parellada M et al (2017) Randomized trial of omega-3 for autism spectrum disorders: effect on cell membrane composition and behavior. Eur Neuropsychopharm 27:1319–1330

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Liu R et al (2020) High ratio of ω-3/ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids targets mTORC1 to prevent high fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome and mitochondrial dysfunction in mice. The J Nutr Biochem 79.

  27. 27.

    Simopoulos AP (2001) n-3 fatty acids and human health: defining strategies for public policy. Lipids 36:83–89

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Xie Y et al (2020) Oil content, and fatty acid profile of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) as affected by phosphorus rate and seeding rate. Ind Crop Prod 145:112087

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    El-Badry AM et al (2007) Omega 3 - Omega 6: What is right for the liver? J Hepatol 47(5):718–725

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Li S et al (2015) Systematic qualitative and quantitative assessment of fatty acids in the seeds of 60 tree peony (Paeonia section Moutan DC.) cultivars by GC–MS. Food Chem 173:133–140

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Deyuan H. Peonies of the World: Polymorphism and Diversity. 2011.

  32. 32.

    Sevim D et al (2013) Discovery of potent in vitro neuroprotective effect of the seed extracts from seven Paeonia L. (peony) taxa and their fatty acid composition. Ind Crop Prod 49:240–246

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Olas B et al (2018) Berry phenolic antioxidants—implications for human health? Front Pharmacol. 9:78

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Zhang X et al (2017) Determination of the phenolic content, profile, and antioxidant activity of seeds from nine tree peony (Paeonia, section, Moutan, DC.) species native to China. Food Res Int 97:141–148

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Sladana Zilic et al (2014) Effects of extrusion, infrared and microwave processing on Maillard reaction products and phenolic compounds in soybean. J Sci Food Agr 94(1):45–51

    Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Devi J et al (2019) Variations in the total phenolics and antioxidant activities among garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) genotypes differing for maturity duration, seed and flower traits and their association with the yield. Sci Hortic-amsterdam 244:141–150

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Solar A et al (2006) Seasonal variations of selected flavonoids, phenolic acids and quinones in annual shoots of common walnut (Juglans regia L.). Plant Sci 170(3):0–461.

  38. 38.

    Fusi F et al (2020) The beneficial health effects of flavonoids on the cardiovascular system: focus on K+ channels. Pharmacol Res Pharmacol Res 152:104625

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    FrederikDalgaard et al (2019) Associations between habitual flavonoid intake and hospital admissions for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: a prospective cohort study. The Lancet Planetary Health 3(11):450–459

    Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Zhao M et al (2020) Research on grade prediction of Spatholobi Caulis via components-antioxidant activity correlations. Chin Traditional Herbal Drugs

  41. 41.

    Zhang X et al (2019) New insights into Paeoniaceae used as medicinal plants in China. Sci Rep-UK. 9(1).

  42. 42.

    Wei T et al (2015) Analysis of polyphenol contents and antioxidant capacity in different fruit parts of different wine grape varieties. Chin Agric Sci Bull 31(28):252–258

    Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Rocchetti G et al (2020) Phenolic profiling and in vitro bioactivity of Moringa oleifera leaves as affected by different extraction solvents. Food Res Int 127:31882101

    Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Torchio Fabrizio, Cagnasso Enzo, Gerbi Vincenzo, Roll Luca (2010) Mechanical properties, phenolic composition and extractability indices of Barbera grapes of different soluble solids contents from several growing areas. Anal Chem Acta 660(1–2):183–189

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Yu J et al (1987) A preliminary study of the chemistry and systematics of paeoniaceae. Acta Phyotax Geobot 25:172–179

    Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    He C et al (2014) Chemical taxonomy of tree peony species from China based on root cortex metabolic fingerprinting. Phytochemistry 107:69–79

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Derakhshan Z et al (2018) Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of ethanolic extract of pomegranate peels, juice and seeds. Food Chem Toxicol 114:108–111

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Muller L, Frohlich K, Bohm V (2011) Comparative antioxidant activities of carotenoids measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ABTS bleaching assay (αTTEAC), DPPH assay and peroxyl radical scavenging assay. Food Chem 129(1):139–148

    Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Wang J et al (2017) Microwave-assisted synthesis, structure and anti-tumor activity of selenized Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharide. Int J Biol Macromol 95:1108–1118

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Rockenbach I et al (2011) Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of seed and skin extracts of red grape (Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca) pomace from Brazilian winemaking. Food Res Int 44(4):897–901

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Paulina P et al (2019) Antioxidant properties, phenolic and mineral composition of germinated chia, golden flax, evening primrose, phacelia and fenugreek. Food Chem 275:69–76

    Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Nguyen VT et al (2011) Proximate Composition, Total Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Activity of Seagrape (Caulerpa lentillifera). J Food Sci 76(7):C950–8

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Todaro L et al (2017) Effects of thermo-vacuum treatment on secondary metabolite content and antioxidant activity of poplar (Populus nigra L.) wood extracts. Ind Crop Prod 109:384–390

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Mansouri A et al (2005) Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of the Algerian ripe date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera). Food Chem 89(3):411–420

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Krishnaswamy K et al (2013) Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of phenolic antioxidants from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera). Food Bioprocess Tech 6(2):441–455

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Bai Z (2017) Comparison of different extraction methods for seed oil from the ‘Fengdan’ Peony cultivar. Food Sci 38(01):136–141

    Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Luo J (2016) Evaluation study on the seed oil features of 35 cultivated tree peony varieties. J Chin Cereals Oils Assoc 31(10):60–65

    Google Scholar 

  58. 58.

    Qing-Yu Z et al (2018) Fatty acid and associated gene expression analyses of three tree peony species reveal key genes for α-linolenic acid synthesis in seeds. Front Plant Sci 9:106

    Google Scholar 

  59. 59.

    Jin L et al (2012) Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of bulb extracts of six lilium species native to China. Molecules 17(12):9361–9378

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Shi J et al (2004) Determination of total flavonoids content in fresh Ginkgo biloba leaf with different colors using near infrared spectroscopy. Spectrochim Acta A 94:271–276

    Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    Chang C et al (2009) Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. J Food Drug Anal 10:178–182

    Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    Remmelt VDW et al (2014) ABTS radical scavenging capacity in green and roasted coffee extracts. LWT-Food Sci Technol 58(1):77–85

    Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    Villa O D et al (2007) Radical scavenging ability of polyphenolic compounds towards DPPH free radical. Talanta 71(1):0–235.

  64. 64.

    Lars M et al (2011) Comparative antioxidant activities of carotenoids measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ABTS bleaching assay (αTEAC), DPPH assay and peroxyl radical scavenging assay. Food Chem 129(1):139–148

    Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    Meng J et al (2012) Varietal differences among the phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of four cultivars of spine grape (Vitis davidii Foex) in Chongyi County (China). Food Chem 134(4):2049–2056

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Yanlong Zhang or Lixin Niu.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

There is no conflict of interest among all authors in publishing this research paper.

Compliance with ethics requirements

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Yan, Z., Li, M., Xie, L. et al. A systematic comparison of 17 cultivated herbaceous peony seed based on phytochemicals and antioxidant activity. Eur Food Res Technol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-020-03544-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Herbaceous peony
  • Unsaturated fatty acids
  • Total phenols
  • Total flavonoids
  • Secondary metabolites
  • Antioxidant activity