Herbaceous peony is widely cultivated around the world because of its ornamental and medicinal value, nevertheless, there has not been systematic studies on its seeds. In this study, the fatty acids, total phenol content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFOC), and secondary metabolites content of 17 cultivars seed were systematically investigated. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, and HRSA. The results showed that the fatty acids of herbaceous peony were different among cultivars, besides, the ALA content of ‘HSHEBT’ and ‘MZL’ has a significantly higher content of ALA and LA, respectively. The metabolite profiles of 17 cultivars were similar and paeoniflorin was the most abundant secondary metabolites in all samples. In addition, the extracts of seeds showed good antioxidant activity in DPPH (32.82–42.6 μmol TE/g DW), ABTS (16.87–57.63 μmol TE/g DW), FRAP (14.55–49.23 μmol TE/g DW) and HRSA (3.16–52.97%). The 17 cultivars were classified into 4 clusters according to the fatty acids, TPC, TFOC, and metabolites. Cluster I showed the highest average value of linolenic acid, TPC, and secondary metabolite content among all clusters, which is consist of ‘XN’ and ‘HSHEBT’ and they are to be a potential resource of functional food. Overall, the resulted showed metabolites and fatty acid content various between herbaceous peony cultivars, which can be the resource of healthy vegetable oil and food with antioxidant effect in the future.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Ma G et al (2017) Characters determination of herbaceous oil physicochemical property and comparative analysis of peony seed oil. J Chinese Cereals Oils Assoc 32(3):130–134
Liu Pu et al (2019) Characterization of Paeonia ostii seed and oil sourced from different cultivation areas in China. Ind Crop and Prod 133:63–71
Yan ZG et al (2019) Phenotypic characteristics and fatty acid composition of seeds from different herbaceous peony species native to China. Chem Biodiver 16(3):e1800589
Liu Pu et al (2017) Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of oil from the seed kernels and isolation of monoterpene glycosides from the oil residue of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. Ind Crop and Prod 107:260–270
Delgado GE et al (2017) Omega-6 fatty acids: opposing associations with risk—the ludwigshafen risk and cardiovascular health study. J Clin Lipidol 11:1082–1090
Thesing CS et al (2018) Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid levels in depressive and anxiety disorders. Psychoneuroendocrino 87:53–62
Mallia S, Piccinali P, Rehberger B et al (2008) Determination of storage stability of butter enriched with unsaturated fatty acids/conjugated linoleic acids (UFA/CLA) using instrumental and sensory methods. Int Dairy J 18(10–11):0–993
Lee T, Spankulova Z, Orazbayeva U et al (2016) Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Content in Soybean Oil. Adv J Food Sci Technol 12(10):568–573
Qian D et al (2019) Effects of hot and cold-pressed processes on volatile compounds of peanut oil and corresponding analysis of characteristic flavor components. LWT 112
Shi XH et al (2018) Seed setting characteristics and seed oil quality of Paeonia lactiflora. Chin Agric Sci Bull 34(19):71–75
Mureșan V et al (2016) In situ analysis of lipid oxidation in oilseed-based food products using near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics: The sunflower kernel paste (tahini) example. Talanta 155:336–346
Salmanzadeh R et al (2018) Propyl gallate (PG) and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) may alter the potential anti-cancer behavior of probiotics. Food Biosci 24:37–45
Aghdam AA et al (2019) Microfluidic-based separation and detection of synthetic antioxidants by integrated gold electrodes followed by HPLC-DAD. Microchem J 149:1–8
Arivalagan M et al (2018) Extraction of phenolic compounds with antioxidant potential from coconut (Cocos nucifera, L.) testa and identification of phenolic acids and flavonoids using UPLC coupled with TQD–MS/MS. LWT Food Sci Technol 92:116–126
Maria I, Paschalina C, Loukia E (2018) Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds: oleuropein, phenolic acids, phenolic alcohols and flavonoids from olive leaves and evaluation of its antioxidant activities. Ind Crop and Prod 124:382–388
Nihan K et al (2018) Differences in antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of commercial and homemade tomato pastes. J Saudi Society Agric Sci 19(4):249–254
Shahidi F et al (2015) Phenolics and polyphenolics in foods, beverages and spices: Antioxidant activity and health effects—a review. J Funct Foods 18:820–897
Embuscado ME (2015) Spices and herbs: Natural sources of antioxidants—a mini review. J Funct Foods 18:811–819
Wang L et al (2020) Effects of maturity on seed quality of five conventional japonica rice cultivars. J Zhejiang A&F Univ 37(1):151–157
Stevenson DG et al (2007) Oil and tocopherol content and composition of pumpkin seed oil in 12 cultivars. J Agr Food Chem 55(10):4005–4013
Zhang F et al (2018) Seed-specific expression of heterologous gene DGAT1 increase soybean seed oil content and nutritional quality. Chin J Biotechnol 34(9):1478–1488
Tan Z et al (2018) Oil content and fatty acid composition of Paeonia lactiflora Seeds. For Res 31(3):45–50
Durante M et al (2017) Seeds of pomegranate, tomato and grapes: an underestimated source of natural bioactive molecules and antioxidants from agri-food by-products. J Food Compos Anal 63:65–72
Constanze et al (2019) Effect of alpha-linolenic acid in combination with the flavonol quercetin on markers of cardiovascular disease risk in healthy, non-obese adults: a randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled crossover trial. Nutrition 58:47–56
Parellada M et al (2017) Randomized trial of omega-3 for autism spectrum disorders: effect on cell membrane composition and behavior. Eur Neuropsychopharm 27:1319–1330
Liu R et al (2020) High ratio of ω-3/ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids targets mTORC1 to prevent high fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome and mitochondrial dysfunction in mice. The J Nutr Biochem 79.
Simopoulos AP (2001) n-3 fatty acids and human health: defining strategies for public policy. Lipids 36:83–89
Xie Y et al (2020) Oil content, and fatty acid profile of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) as affected by phosphorus rate and seeding rate. Ind Crop Prod 145:112087
El-Badry AM et al (2007) Omega 3 - Omega 6: What is right for the liver? J Hepatol 47(5):718–725
Li S et al (2015) Systematic qualitative and quantitative assessment of fatty acids in the seeds of 60 tree peony (Paeonia section Moutan DC.) cultivars by GC–MS. Food Chem 173:133–140
Deyuan H. Peonies of the World: Polymorphism and Diversity. 2011.
Sevim D et al (2013) Discovery of potent in vitro neuroprotective effect of the seed extracts from seven Paeonia L. (peony) taxa and their fatty acid composition. Ind Crop Prod 49:240–246
Olas B et al (2018) Berry phenolic antioxidants—implications for human health? Front Pharmacol. 9:78
Zhang X et al (2017) Determination of the phenolic content, profile, and antioxidant activity of seeds from nine tree peony (Paeonia, section, Moutan, DC.) species native to China. Food Res Int 97:141–148
Sladana Zilic et al (2014) Effects of extrusion, infrared and microwave processing on Maillard reaction products and phenolic compounds in soybean. J Sci Food Agr 94(1):45–51
Devi J et al (2019) Variations in the total phenolics and antioxidant activities among garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) genotypes differing for maturity duration, seed and flower traits and their association with the yield. Sci Hortic-amsterdam 244:141–150
Solar A et al (2006) Seasonal variations of selected flavonoids, phenolic acids and quinones in annual shoots of common walnut (Juglans regia L.). Plant Sci 170(3):0–461.
Fusi F et al (2020) The beneficial health effects of flavonoids on the cardiovascular system: focus on K+ channels. Pharmacol Res Pharmacol Res 152:104625
FrederikDalgaard et al (2019) Associations between habitual flavonoid intake and hospital admissions for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: a prospective cohort study. The Lancet Planetary Health 3(11):450–459
Zhao M et al (2020) Research on grade prediction of Spatholobi Caulis via components-antioxidant activity correlations. Chin Traditional Herbal Drugs
Zhang X et al (2019) New insights into Paeoniaceae used as medicinal plants in China. Sci Rep-UK. 9(1).
Wei T et al (2015) Analysis of polyphenol contents and antioxidant capacity in different fruit parts of different wine grape varieties. Chin Agric Sci Bull 31(28):252–258
Rocchetti G et al (2020) Phenolic profiling and in vitro bioactivity of Moringa oleifera leaves as affected by different extraction solvents. Food Res Int 127:31882101
Torchio Fabrizio, Cagnasso Enzo, Gerbi Vincenzo, Roll Luca (2010) Mechanical properties, phenolic composition and extractability indices of Barbera grapes of different soluble solids contents from several growing areas. Anal Chem Acta 660(1–2):183–189
Yu J et al (1987) A preliminary study of the chemistry and systematics of paeoniaceae. Acta Phyotax Geobot 25:172–179
He C et al (2014) Chemical taxonomy of tree peony species from China based on root cortex metabolic fingerprinting. Phytochemistry 107:69–79
Derakhshan Z et al (2018) Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of ethanolic extract of pomegranate peels, juice and seeds. Food Chem Toxicol 114:108–111
Muller L, Frohlich K, Bohm V (2011) Comparative antioxidant activities of carotenoids measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ABTS bleaching assay (αTTEAC), DPPH assay and peroxyl radical scavenging assay. Food Chem 129(1):139–148
Wang J et al (2017) Microwave-assisted synthesis, structure and anti-tumor activity of selenized Artemisia sphaerocephala polysaccharide. Int J Biol Macromol 95:1108–1118
Rockenbach I et al (2011) Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of seed and skin extracts of red grape (Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca) pomace from Brazilian winemaking. Food Res Int 44(4):897–901
Paulina P et al (2019) Antioxidant properties, phenolic and mineral composition of germinated chia, golden flax, evening primrose, phacelia and fenugreek. Food Chem 275:69–76
Nguyen VT et al (2011) Proximate Composition, Total Phenolic Content, and Antioxidant Activity of Seagrape (Caulerpa lentillifera). J Food Sci 76(7):C950–8
Todaro L et al (2017) Effects of thermo-vacuum treatment on secondary metabolite content and antioxidant activity of poplar (Populus nigra L.) wood extracts. Ind Crop Prod 109:384–390
Mansouri A et al (2005) Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of the Algerian ripe date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera). Food Chem 89(3):411–420
Krishnaswamy K et al (2013) Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of phenolic antioxidants from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera). Food Bioprocess Tech 6(2):441–455
Bai Z (2017) Comparison of different extraction methods for seed oil from the ‘Fengdan’ Peony cultivar. Food Sci 38(01):136–141
Luo J (2016) Evaluation study on the seed oil features of 35 cultivated tree peony varieties. J Chin Cereals Oils Assoc 31(10):60–65
Qing-Yu Z et al (2018) Fatty acid and associated gene expression analyses of three tree peony species reveal key genes for α-linolenic acid synthesis in seeds. Front Plant Sci 9:106
Jin L et al (2012) Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of bulb extracts of six lilium species native to China. Molecules 17(12):9361–9378
Shi J et al (2004) Determination of total flavonoids content in fresh Ginkgo biloba leaf with different colors using near infrared spectroscopy. Spectrochim Acta A 94:271–276
Chang C et al (2009) Estimation of total flavonoid content in propolis by two complementary colorimetric methods. J Food Drug Anal 10:178–182
Remmelt VDW et al (2014) ABTS radical scavenging capacity in green and roasted coffee extracts. LWT-Food Sci Technol 58(1):77–85
Villa O D et al (2007) Radical scavenging ability of polyphenolic compounds towards DPPH free radical. Talanta 71(1):0–235.
Lars M et al (2011) Comparative antioxidant activities of carotenoids measured by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ABTS bleaching assay (αTEAC), DPPH assay and peroxyl radical scavenging assay. Food Chem 129(1):139–148
Meng J et al (2012) Varietal differences among the phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of four cultivars of spine grape (Vitis davidii Foex) in Chongyi County (China). Food Chem 134(4):2049–2056
Conflict of interest
There is no conflict of interest among all authors in publishing this research paper.
Compliance with ethics requirements
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Yan, Z., Li, M., Xie, L. et al. A systematic comparison of 17 cultivated herbaceous peony seed based on phytochemicals and antioxidant activity. Eur Food Res Technol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-020-03544-6
- Herbaceous peony
- Unsaturated fatty acids
- Total phenols
- Total flavonoids
- Secondary metabolites
- Antioxidant activity