Advertisement

European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 244, Issue 9, pp 1555–1567 | Cite as

Genetic and environmental factors underlying variation in yield performance and bioactive compound content of hot pepper varieties (Capsicum annuum) cultivated in two contrasting Italian locations

  • Pasquale Tripodi
  • Teodoro Cardi
  • Giulia Bianchi
  • Carmela Anna Migliori
  • Massimo Schiavi
  • Giuseppe Leonardo Rotino
  • Roberto Lo Scalzo
Original Paper

Abstract

Hot pepper (Capsicum spp.) is an economically considerable crop, particularly appreciated for its nutritional properties and antioxidants content. Levels of the latter depend on several factors including the cultivar and the environment. In the present study, diversity in morpho-agronomic traits and phytochemical compounds was investigated in 14 hot pepper accessions cultivated in two different pedoclimatic locations. The main source of variation was due to the genotype which showed significant differences for all traits at both locations. With regard to the bioactive compounds, the environment accounted for over 30% of variation for carotenoids, ascorbic acid and tocopherols and less than 0.5% for capsaicinoids. A strong genotype × environment interaction (p < 0.01) was observed in all traits with the exception of those related to fruit weight and shape. Genotyping by sequencing was used for molecular analysis revealing a total of 2120 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Diversity on the basis of hierarchical clustering and structure analysis elucidated the relationships among accessions on the basis of their biological status and common ancestors, suggesting their contribution to the phenotypic performances observed. The comprehensive approach of this study provides useful information on the variability of phytochemicals mediated by the environment, revealing the challenge related to the genetic improvement of bioactive compounds. The integration of phenotypic and molecular data provides information to identify interesting hot pepper accessions to select for breeding programmes.

Keywords

Hot pepper Genotype × environment Morpho-agronomic performances Bioactive compounds Molecular diversity 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The work was supported by ‘PEPIC’ project funded by the Italian Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry and the ‘GenHort’ project funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR, PON02_00395_3215002). The authors wish to acknowledge the students of the Agricultural High School ‘Vilfredo Pareto’ of Milan for technical support in the chemical analysis.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There are no conflicts of interest to declare.

Human and animal participant rights

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

217_2018_3069_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (11 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLSX 10 KB)
217_2018_3069_MOESM2_ESM.pptx (85 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PPTX 84 KB)
217_2018_3069_MOESM3_ESM.pptx (203 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (PPTX 202 KB)

References

  1. 1.
    The Plant List (2018) http://www.theplantlistorg/tpl11/search?q=capsicum. Accessed 07 Nov 2017
  2. 2.
    Bosland PW, Walker SJ (2010) Measuring chile pepper heat Guide-237 New Mexico State University. http://aces.nmsu.edu/pubs/_h/h-237.pdf. Accessed 12 Feb 2017
  3. 3.
    Sun T, Xu Z, Wu CT, Janes M, Prinyawiwatkul W (2007) Antioxidant activities of different colored sweet bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L). J Food Sci 72:98–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Prasad BCN, Shrivastava R, Ravishankar GA (2005) Capsaicin: a promising multifaceted drug from Capsicum spp. Evid Based Integr Med 2:147–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Silva LR, Azevedo J, Pereira MJ, Valentão P, Andrade PB (2013) Chemical assessment and antioxidant capacity of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds. Toxicol Food Chem 3:240–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Howard LR, Talcott ST, Brenes CH, Villalon B (2000) Changes in phytochemical and antioxidant activity of selected pepper cultivars (Capsicum species) as influenced by maturity. J Agr Food Chem 48:1713–1720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Estrada B, Bernal MA, Díaz J, Pomar F, Merino F (2002) Capsaicinoids in vegetative organs of Capsicum annuum L in relation to fruiting. J Agr Food Chem 50:1188–1191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Marin A, Ferreres F, Tomas F (2004) Characterization and quantitative of antioxidant constituents of sweet peppers. J Agr Food Chem 52:3861–3869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Deschamps S, Llaca V, May GD (2012) Genotyping-by-sequencing in plants. Biology 1:460–483CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Taranto F, D’Agostino N, Greco B, Cardi T, Tripodi P (2016) Genome-wide SNP discovery and population structure analysis in pepper (Capsicum annuum) using genotype-by-sequencing. BMC Genom 17:943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Collins MD, Wasmund LM, Bosland PW (1995) Improved method for quantifying capsaicinoids in Capsicum using high-performance liquid chromatography. HortSci 30:137–139Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Barbero GF, Palma M, Barroso CG (2006) Determination of capsaicinoids in peppers by microwave-assisted extraction-high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Anal Chim Acta 578:227–233CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hornero-Méndez D, Mínguez-Mosquera MI (2001) Rapid spectrophotometric determination of red and yellow isochromic carotenoid fractions in paprika and red pepper oleoresins. J Agr Food Chem 49:3584–3588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Picchi V, Migliori C, Lo Scalzo R, Campanelli G, Ferrari V, Di Cesare LF (2012) Phytochemical content in organic and conventionally grown Italian cauliflower. Food Chem 130:501–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gnayfeed MH, Daood HG, Biacs PAm Alcaraz CF (2001) Content of bioactive compounds in pungent spice red pepper (paprika) as affected by ripening and genotype. J Sci Food Agr 81:1580–1585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Meckelmann SW, Riegel DW, van Zonneveld M, Ríos L, Peña K, Mueller-Seitz E, Petz M (2015) Capsaicinoids flavonoids tocopherols antioxidant capacity and color attributes in 23 native Peruvian chili peppers (Capsicum spp) grown in three different locations. Eur Food Res Technol 240:273–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kumar S, Stecher G, Tamura K (2016) MEGA7: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis 70 for bigger datasets. Mol Biol Evol 33:1870–1874CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pritchard JK, Stephens M, Donnelly P (2005) Inference of population structure using multilocus genotype data. Genetics 155:945–959Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Earl DA, vonHoldt BM (2012) STRUCTURE HARVESTER: a website and program for visualizing STRUCTURE output and implementing the Evanno method. Conserv Genet Resour 4:359–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Evanno G, Regnaut S, Goudet J (2005) Detecting the number of clusters of individuals using the software STRUCTURE: a simulation study. Mol Ecol 14:2611–2620CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Curtin F, Schulz P (1998) Multiple correlations and Bonferroni’s correction. Biol Psychiatry 44:775–777CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gao J, Tarcea VG, Karnovsky A, Mirel BR, Weymouth TE, Beecher CW, Cavalcoli JD, Athey BD, Omenn GS, Burant CF, Jagadish HV (2010) Metscape: a Cytoscape plug-in for visualizing and interpreting metabolomic data in the context of human metabolic networks. Bioinformatics 26:971–973CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mantel NA (1967) The detection of disease clustering and a generalized regression approach. Cancer Res 27:209–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gurung T, Techawongstien S, Suriharn B, Techawongstien S (2011) Impact of environments on the accumulation of Capsaicinoids in Capsicum spp. HortSci 46:1576–1581Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Butcher JD, Crosby KM, Yoo KS, Patil BS, Ibrahim AMH, Leskovar KI, Jifon JL (2012) Environmental and genotypic variation of capsaicinoid and flavonoid concentrations in Habanero (Capsicum chinense) peppers. HortScience 47:574–579Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gurung T, Techawongstien S, Suriharn B, Techawongstien S (2012) Stability analysis of yield and capsaicinoids content in chili (Capsicum spp) grown across six environments. Euphytica 187:11–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zewdie Y, Bosland PW (2000) Evaluation of genotype environment and genotype-by-environment interaction for capsaicinoids in Capsicum annuum L. Euphytica 111:185–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Giuffrida D, Dugo P, Torre G, Bignardi C, Cavazza A, Corradini C, Dugo G (2013) Characterization of 12 Capsicum varieties by evaluation of their carotenoid profile and pungency determination. Food Chem 140:794CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wahyuni Y, Ballester AR, Sudarmonowati E, Bino RJ, Bovy AG (2011) Metabolite biodiversity in pepper (Capsicum) fruits of thirty-two diverse accessions: variation in health-related compounds and implications for breeding. Phytochemistry 72:1358–1370CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Reddy UK, Almeida A, Abburi VL, Alaparthi SB, Unselt D, Hankins G, Park M, Choi D, Nimmakayala P (2014) Identification of gene-specific polymorphisms and association with capsaicin pathway metabolites in Capsicum annuum L collections. PLoS One 9:1–10Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bosland PW, Votava EJ, Votava EM (2012) Peppers: vegetable and spice capsicums. Crop Production Science in Horticulture Series 22 Wallingford UK CABI, p 248Google Scholar
  32. 32.
  33. 33.
    Campos M, Gómez K, Ordoñez Y, Ancona D (2013) Polyphenols ascorbic acid and carotenoids contents and antioxidant properties of habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense). Fruit Food Nutr Sci 4:47–54Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kantar MB, Anderson JE, Lucht SA, Mercer K, Bernau V, Case KA, Le NC, Fredericksen MK, DeKeyser HC, Wong ZZ, Hastings JC, Baumler DJ (2016) Vitamin Variation in Capsicum Spp provides opportunities to improve nutritional value of human diets. PLoS ONE 11:e0161464CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Vega-Galvez A, Di Scala K, Rodriguez K, Lemus-Mondaca R, Miranda M, Lopez J, Perez-Won M (2009) Effect of air-drying temperature on physico-chemical properties antioxidant capacity colour and total phenolic content of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L var Hungarian). Food Chem 117:647–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Yahia EM, Contreras-Padilla M, Gonzalez-Aguilar G (2001) Ascorbic acid content in relation to Ascorbic acid oxidase activity and polyamine content in Tomato and Bell Pepper fruits during development maturation and senescence. Lebensm Wiss u Technol 34:452–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Arimboor R, Natarajan RB, Menon KR, Chandrasekhar LP, Moorkoth V (2015) Red pepper (Capsicum annuum) carotenoids as a source of natural food colors: analysis and stability a review. J Food Sci Technol 52:1258–1271CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Koch M, Arango Y, Mock HP, Heise KP (2002) Factors influencing α-tocopherol synthesis in pepper fruits. J Plant Physiol 159:1015–1019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lachman J, Hejtmánková A, Orsák M, Popov M, Martinek P (2018) Tocotrienols and tocopherols in colored-grain wheat tritordeum and barley. Food Chem 240:725–735.  https://doi.org/10.1016/jfoodchem201707123 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lee JJ, Crosby KM, Pike LM, Yoo KS, Leskovar DI (2005) Impact of genetic and environmental variation on development of flavonoids and carotenoids in pepper (Capsicum spp). Sci Hortic 106:341–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Keyhaninejad N, Richins RD, O’Connell MA (2012) Carotenoid content in field-grown versus greenhouse-grown peppers: different responses in leaf and fruit. HortScience 47:852–855Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Falk J, Munne-Bosch S (2010) Tocochromanol functions in plants: antioxidation and beyond. J Exp Bot 61:1549–1566CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    David P (1998) Heterozygosity-fitness correlations: new perspectives on old problems. Heredity 80:531–553CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CREA Research Centre for Vegetable and Ornamental CropsPontecagnano-FaianoItaly
  2. 2.CREA Research Centre for Engineering and Agro-food ProcessingMilanoItaly
  3. 3.CREA, Research Centre for Engineering and Agro-food ProcessingTorinoItaly
  4. 4.CREA Research Centre for Genomics and BioinformaticsMontanaso LombardoItaly

Personalised recommendations