Influence of matrix on the bioavailability of nine fungicides in wine grape and red wine
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The influence of the matrix and the concentration of the pesticides on the bioavailability of the dimethomorph, ametoctradin, boscalid, fenhexamid, mepanipyrim, cyazofamid, kresoxim-methyl, pyraclostrobin, and metrofenone fungicides in grapes and red wine are studied. Bioavailability is calculated using an in vitro procedure and by simulating human gastric digestion by dialyzation of the fungicides at six concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, and 10 mg kg−1) in the semipermeable cellulose membrane. Analyses were carried out by QuEChERS extraction method and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry with a triple quadrupole analyzer detection (LC-MS/MS QqQ). The results indicated a clear effect of the concentration and matrix, with dialyzation in grapes and red wine beginning in some fungicides from just 2 mg kg1, and in water from 5 mg kg−1. The different matrices can also be ordered according to the matrix effect: water > red wine > grape. The fungicides which present greatest bioavailability are, in order: ametoctradin in grape and red wine, boscalid in red wine and water, dimethomorph in water, and fenhexamid in red wine and water.
KeywordsFungicides bioavailability Grape Red wine
The authors acknowledge funding from the Spanish Ministry for Economy and Competitiveness under Project AGL2011-30378-C03-03.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.
Research involving human and animal participants
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.
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