Seedless table grape residues as a source of polyphenols: comparison and optimization of non-conventional extraction techniques

  • Pasquale Crupi
  • Tiziana Dipalmo
  • Maria Lisa Clodoveo
  • Aline T. Toci
  • Antonio Coletta
Original Paper
  • 40 Downloads

Abstract

Grape skins are one of the most important leftovers of grape juice production, and are also a good source of bioactive compounds, especially phenolic antioxidants and fiber, because they are not stressed as the winemaking process occurs. Their extracts may be used as functional components of enriched foods and beverage, both to color the products and to supplement with bio-functional metabolites. Therefore, in this work, ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) were optimized and compared using response surface methodology (RSM) and desirability function (D) statistical tools, at selected temperature and solvent type (close to 50 °C and water/ethanol/phosphoric acid 70:30:1) but varying contact time (t) and sample-to-solvent ratio (S/L), to find the best conditions for the extraction of the main polyphenols present in table grape skin (Apulia Rose cv.) residues from juice processing. The mathematical models built in this investigation showed that the highest significant factor (P < 0.001) was t, influencing the extraction of all compounds irrespective of the technique used, with the optimal results obtained at intermediate levels (10.5 and 21 min for MAE and UAE, respectively). On the contrary, the only S/L factor was not always significant, even though higher amount of polyphenols were generally recovered at low solid/liquid ratio (0.05 and 0.07 g/mL for MAE and UAE, respectively). Finally, UAE extracts exhibited higher content of anthocyanins, procyanidins, flavonols, and stilbenes than MAE, with values ranging from 1.5 to 69.6 mg/100 g of fresh weight.

Keywords

Seedless grape residues Polyphenols Microwave assisted extraction Ultrasound assisted extraction HPLC–DAD–MS/MS 

Abbreviations

HPLC–DAD–MS/MS

High performance liquid chromatography–diode array detector–tandem mass spectrometry

ESI

Electrospray ionization

EIC

Extracted ions chromatogram

CID

Collision induced dissociation

UV–Vis

Ultraviolet–visible

[M-H]

Deprotonated molecule

[M]+

Molecular ion

t

Extraction time

S/L

Sample-to-solvent ratio

MAE

Microwave assisted extraction

UAE

Ultrasound assisted extraction

RSM

Response surface methodology

D

Desirability function

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by grant from the Italian Ministry of University and Research-MIUR (PON02_00186_2937475, Pro.Ali.Fun project).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Compliance with ethics requirements

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.

Supplementary material

217_2017_3030_MOESM1_ESM.doc (84 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 84 KB)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pasquale Crupi
    • 1
  • Tiziana Dipalmo
    • 2
  • Maria Lisa Clodoveo
    • 2
  • Aline T. Toci
    • 3
  • Antonio Coletta
    • 1
  1. 1.CREA-VE-Consiglio per la Ricerca in Agricoltura e l’analisi dell’Economia Agraria, Viticoltura ed EnologiaTuriItaly
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural and Environmental ScienceUniversity of BariBariItaly
  3. 3.Instituto Latino-Americano de Ciências da Vida e da Natureza Centro Interdisciplinar de Ciências da NaturezaFoz do IguaçuBrazil

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