European Food Research and Technology

, Volume 244, Issue 5, pp 925–935 | Cite as

Making natural sparkling wines with non-Saccharomyces yeasts

  • Nedret Neslihan Ivit
  • Iris Loira
  • Antonio Morata
  • Santiago Benito
  • Felipe Palomero
  • Jose Antonio Suárez-Lepe
Original Paper


The usage of alternative non-Saccharomyces yeasts might provide desirable characteristics to white and red sparkling wines. In this study, second fermentation in the bottle was carried out by Saccharomyces cerevisiae as control and two non-Saccharomyces species: Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The second fermentations of white base wine made from Vitis Vinifera cv. Airén grapes and red base wine made from Vitis Vinifera cv. Tempranillo grapes, in the bottle were followed by aging on lees during 4 months at 12 °C. Finally, physicochemical properties were analyzed and a sensory evaluation was held. Significant differences were detected among sparkling wines produced with the studied yeasts in acidity parameters and non-volatile compounds. The pyranoanthocyanin content and color intensity was higher with the use of Schizosaccharomyces pombe in red sparkling wines. The total amount of volatile compounds was similar among treatments, but in certain compounds, individual variations in concentration were seen. Total amount of biogenic amines decreased in all the samples after the treatment. Differences were also detected in sensory evaluation; the sparkling wines produced with Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed different aromatic profile in comparison to sparkling wines produced with Schizosaccharomyces pombe, considering the parameters of limpidity, aroma intensity, aroma quality, flowery, fruity, buttery and reduction aromas in white samples; color intensity, limpidity, aroma intensity, herbal, buttery, yeasty, and oxidation aromas in red samples. Usage of non-Saccharomyces yeasts for sparkling wine production with traditional method can be furtherly studied to change specific characteristics of sparkling wines without decreasing their overall quality and obtain differentiation.


Sparkling wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae Saccharomycodes ludwigii Schizosaccharomyces pombe Aging on lees 



This work was funded by Spain’s Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (AGL2013-40503-R and AGL2013-47706-R). The authors would like to thank J. A. Sánchez (Department of Chemistry and Food Technology) for their excellent technical assistance. The authors are also grateful to the accredited Estación Enológica de Haro laboratory, where the biogenic amines and amino acids analysis were performed, especially to Montserrat Iñiguez and Elena Melendez.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Research involving human participants and/or animals

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects.


  1. 1.
    Ribéreau-Gayon P, Dubourdieu D, Donèche B, Lonvaud A (2006) 14. Other winemaking methods. Anonymous handbook of enology, the microbiology of wine and vinifications, 2nd edn. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 458–463Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Suárez-Lepe JA, Iñigo Leal B (2004) Microbiología Enológica, Fundamentos de Vinificación, 4th edn. Mundi-Prensa, p 634Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jackson RS (2008) 7. Fermentation: prefermentation practices and biochemistry of alcoholic fermentation.Anonymous wine science: principles and applications. Academic Press, Cambridge, pp 348–374Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Estela-Escalante W, Rychtera M, Melzoch K, Hatta-Sakoda B, Ludeña-Cervantes Z, Sarmiento-Casavilca V, Chaquilla-Quilca G (2011) Tip Rev Espec Cienc Quím Biol, 14:12–23Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Romano P, Marchese R, Laurita C, Saleano G, Turbanti L (1999) World J Microb Biot 15:451–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Domizio P, Romani C, Lencioni L, Comitini F, Gobbi M, Mannazzu I, Ciani M (2011) Int J Food Microbiol 147:170–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Benito S, Palomero F, Calderón F, Palmero D, Suárez-Lépe J (2014) Food Microbiol 42:218–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Benito S, Palomero F, Calderón F, Palmero D, Suárez-Lepe JA (2014) Schizosaccharomyces. In: Batt CA, Tortorello ML (eds) Encylopedia of food microbiology, 2nd edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 365–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Palomero F, Morata A, Benito S, Calderón F, Suárez-Lepe J (2009) Food Chem 112:432–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Benito S, Palomero F, Morata A, Calderón F, Suárez-Lepe JA (2012) Int J Food Sci Tech 47:2101–2108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Uthurry C, Varela F, Colomo B, Lepe JS, Lombardero J, Del Hierro JG (2004) Food Chem 88:329–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Morata A, Gómez-Cordovés M, Colomo B, Suárez J (2003) J Agric Food Chem 51:7402–7409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kulkarni P, Loira I, Morata A, Tesfaye W, González MC, Suárez-Lepe JA (2015) LWT Food sci Technol 64:1255–1262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Liu L, Loira I, Morata A, Suárez-Lepe J, González M, Rauhut D (2016) Eur Food Res Technol 242:559–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Morata A, González C, Suárez-Lepe JA (2007) Int J Food Microbiol 116:144–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Glories Y (1984) Conn Vigne et Vin 18:195–217Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Glories Y (1984) Conn Vigne et Vin 18:253–271Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Romano P, Fiore C, Paraggio M, Caruso M, Capece A (2003) Int J Food Microbiol 86:169–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lambrechts M, Pretorius I (2000) S Afr J Enol Vitic 21:97–129Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Anonymous, OIV (2016) International Code of Oenological Practices, 2016 Issue.
  21. 21.
    Vasserot Y, Caillet S, Maujean A (1997) Am J Enol Vitic 48:433–437Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Morata A, Benito S, Loira I, Palomero F, González M, Suarez-Lepe J (2012) Int J Food Microbiol 159:47–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Suárez-Lepe J, Morata A (2012) Trends Food Sci Technol 23:39–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Benito S, Palomero F, Gálvez L, Morata A, Calderón F, Palmero D, Suárez-Lepe JA (2014) Food Technol Biotech 52:376–382Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Anonymous, OIV (2011) Maximum acceptable limits of various substances contained in wine, 2011 Issue.
  26. 26.
    Rapp A, Mandery H (1986) Experientia 42:873–884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Moreno-Arribas MV, Polo MC (2009) Chap. 6A. Amino acids and biogenic amines. In: Moreno-Arribas V, Polo MC (eds) Wine chemistry and biochemistry. Springer, Berlin, pp 162–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Benito S, Hofmann T, Laier M, Lochbühler B, Schüttler A, Ebert K, Fritsch S, Röcker J, Rauhut D (2015) Eur Food Res Technol 241:707–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fraile P, Garrido J, Ancín C (2000) J Agric Food Chem 48:1789–1798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hernández-Orte P, Ibarz M, Cacho J, Ferreira V (2005) Food Chem 89:163–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lehtonen P (1996) Am J Enol Vitic 47:127–133Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Alcaide-Hidalgo JM, Moreno-Arribas MV, Martín-Álvarez PJ, Polo MC (2007) Food Chem 103:572–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sumby KM, Grbin PR, Jiranek V (2014) Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 98:8111–8132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Benito Á, Calderón F, Palomero F, Benito S (2015) Molecules 20:9510–9523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Anlı RE, Bayram M (2008) Food Rev Int 25:86–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Romano P, Capece A, Poeta C (2007) Bulletin de l’OIV, pp 80–91Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Martuscelli M, Arfelli G, Manetta A, Suzzi G (2013) Food Chem 140:590–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Granchi L, Romano P, Mangani S, Guerrini S, Vincenzini M (2005) Bull l’OIV Off Int Vigne Vin 78:595–610Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Medina K, Boido E, Fariña L, Gioia O, Gomez M, Barquet M, Gaggero C, Dellacassa E, Carrau F (2013) Food Chem 141:2513–2521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Marcobal Á, Martín-Álvarez PJ, Polo MC, Muñoz R, Moreno-Arribas M (2006) J Food Protect 69:397–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.enotecUPM, Chemistry and Food Technology Department, ETSIAABUniversidad Politécnica de MadridMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations