Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 410, Issue 25, pp 6371–6386 | Cite as

Employing proteomics to understand the effects of nutritional intervention in cancer treatment

  • Monica M. Schroll
  • Amanda B. HummonEmail author


Lifestyle optimizations are implementable changes that can have an impact on health and disease. Nutrition is a lifestyle optimization that has been shown to be of great importance in cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis. Dozens of clinical trials are currently in progress that focus on the nutritional modifications that cancer patients can make prior to and during medical care that increase the efficacy of treatment. In this review, we discuss various nutritional inventions for cancer patients and the analytical approaches to characterize the downstream molecular effects. We first begin by briefly explaining the many different forms of nutritional intervention currently being used in cancer treatment as well as their motivating biology. The forms of nutrient modulation described in this review include calorie restriction, the different practices of fasting, and carbohydrate restriction. The review then shifts to explain how proteomics is used to determine biomarkers of cancer and how it can be utilized in the future to determine the metabolic phenotype of a tumor, and inform physicians if nutritional intervention should be recommended for a cancer patient. Nutrigenomics aims to understand the relationship of nutrients and gene expression and can be used to understand the downstream molecular effects of nutrition restriction, partially through proteomic analysis. Proteomics is just beginning to be used as cancer diagnostic and predictive tools. However, these approaches have not been used to their full potential to understand nutritional intervention in cancer.

Graphical abstract


Cancer Nutrition Fasting Mass spectrometry Nutritional proteomics 





A scalable automated proteomic pipeline


Cellular consumption and release


Calorie restriction


c-Reactive protein


Caloric Restriction Society


Differential stress resistance


Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays


Electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry


Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance


Growth hormone


Hemoglobin A1C


Intermittent fasting


Insulin growth factor-1


Janus kinase and signal transducer activator of transcription


Ketogenic diet


Liquid chromatography


Multiple reaction monitoring


Mass spectrometry


Nuclear factor-κB


National Institute of Aging


Parallel accumulation serial fragmentation


Sodium dodecyl sulfate


Suspension trapping




Time-restricted feeding


University of Wisconsin, Madison



MMS was supported by the National Institutes of Health Training Grant–Chemistry Biochemistry Biology Interface Program (T32GM075762). ABH was supported by the National Institutes of Health (R01GM110406), and the National Science Foundation (CAREER Award, CHE-1351595). MMS researched available literature and was the major contributing author. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Dr. Susan Skube, Katelyn Ludwig, and Emily Herring for their edits.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryUniversity of Notre DameNotre DameUSA
  2. 2.Harper Cancer Research InstituteUniversity of Notre DameNotre DameUSA
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Comprehensive Cancer CenterThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

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