Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 410, Issue 16, pp 3789–3803 | Cite as

Identification of intentionally and non-intentionally added substances in plastic packaging materials and their migration into food products

  • Verónica García Ibarra
  • Ana Rodríguez Bernaldo de Quirós
  • Perfecto Paseiro Losada
  • Raquel Sendón
Research Paper

Abstract

Plastic materials are widely used in food packaging applications; however, there is increased concern because of the possible release of undesirable components into foodstuffs. Migration of plastic constituents not only has the potential to affect product quality but also constitutes a risk to consumer health. In order to check the safety of food contact materials, analytical methodologies to identify potential migrants are required. In the first part of this work, a GC/MS screening method was developed for the identification of components from plastic packaging materials including intentionally and “non-intentionally added substances” (NIAS) as potential migrants. In the second part of this study, the presence of seven compounds (bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC), benzophenone (BP)) previously identified in packaging materials were investigated in food products (corn and potatoes snacks, cookies, and cakes). For this purpose, a suitable extraction method was developed and quantification was performed using GC-MS. The developed method was validated in terms of linearity, recovery, repeatability, and limits of detection and quantification. The spiked recoveries varied between 82.7 and 116.1%, and relative standard deviation (RSD) was in the range of 2.22–15.9%. The plasticizer ATBC was the most detected compound (94% samples), followed by DEP (65%), DEHP (47%), BP (44%), DBP (35%), DIBP (21%), and BHT (12%). Regarding phthalates, DEP and DEHP were the most frequently detected compounds in concentrations up to 1.44 μg g−1. In some samples, only DBP exceeded the European SML of 0.3 mg kg−1 established in Regulation 10/2011.

Graphical abstract

Chemical migration from plastic packaging into food

Keywords

Screening method Food packaging materials NIAS Migration studies GC-MS 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The study was financially by the “Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad” and by “Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER), Ref. No. AGL2015-69609-P “MIGRAEXPO,” (MINECO/FEDER,UE). V. García Ibarra is grateful for her grant from SENESCYT-Ecuador.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Verónica García Ibarra
    • 1
  • Ana Rodríguez Bernaldo de Quirós
    • 1
  • Perfecto Paseiro Losada
    • 1
  • Raquel Sendón
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food ScienceUniversity of Santiago de CompostelaSantiago de CompostelaSpain

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