Rapid recognition of volatile organic compounds with colorimetric sensor arrays for lung cancer screening
- 276 Downloads
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath can be used as biomarkers to identify early stages of lung cancer. Herein, we report a disposable colorimetric array that has been constructed from diverse chemo-responsive colorants. Distinguishable difference maps were plotted within 4 min for specifically targeted VOCs. Through the consideration of various chemical interactions with VOCs, the arrays successfully discriminate between 20 different volatile organic compounds in breath that are related to lung cancer. VOCs were identified either with the visualized difference maps or through pattern recognition with an accuracy of at least 90%. No uncertainties or errors were observed in the hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Finally, good reproducibility and stability of the array was achieved against changes in humidity. Generally, this work provides fundamental support for construction of simple and rapid VOC sensors. More importantly, this approach provides a hypothesis-free array method for breath testing via VOC profiling. Therefore, this small, rapid, non-invasive, inexpensive, and visualized sensor array is a powerful and promising tool for early screening of lung cancer.
KeywordsVOCs Lung cancer Classification Chemo-responsive Colorimetric array Pattern recognition
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (No. 81772290), Chongqing Graduate Student Research Innovation Project (No. CYB17037), the Workstation in Sichuan Province GY2015-01, and the sharing fund of Chongqing University’s large equipment for financial support.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that no conflict exists and the study has not involved human participants or animals.
- 2.Stewart BW, Wild CP, World Health Organization (2014) World cancer report 2014. International Agency for Research on Cancer 16.Google Scholar
- 20.Yu H, Xu L, Cao MF, Chen X, Wang P, Jiao JW, et al. Detection of volatile organic compounds in breath as markers of lung cancer using a novel electronic nose. Proc IEEE Sens. 2003;2:1333–7.Google Scholar
- 21.Natale CD, Macagnano A, Martinelli E, Paolesse R, D'Arcangelo G, Roscioni C, et al. Lung cancer identification by the analysis of breath by means of an array of non-selective gas sensors. Biosens Bioelectron. 2003;18(10):1209–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0956-5663(03)00086-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 30.Buszewski B, Ligor T, Jezierski T, Wenda-Piesik A, Walczak M, Rudnicka J. Identification of volatile lung cancer markers by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: comparison with discrimination by canines. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012;404(1):141–6. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-012-6102-8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 33.Filipiak W, Filipiak A, Sponring A, Schmid T, Zelger B, Ager C, et al. Comparative analyses of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from patients, tumors and transformed cell lines for the validation of lung cancer-derived breath markers. J Breath Res. 2014;8(2):027111. https://doi.org/10.1088/1752-7155/8/2/027111.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 35.Dragonieri S, van der Schee MP, Massaro T, Schiavulli N, Brinkman P, Pinca A, et al. An electronic nose distinguishes exhaled breath of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma from controls. Lung Cancer. 2012;75(3):326–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2011.08.009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 46.Poli D, Goldoni M, Corradi M, Acampa O, Carbognani P, Internullo E, et al. Determination of aldehydes in exhaled breath of patients with lung cancer by means of on-fiber-derivatisation SPME-GC/MS. J Chromatogr B. 2010;878(27):2643–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2010.01.022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar