Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 410, Issue 6, pp 1825–1831 | Cite as

Capillary zone electrophoresis determination of fluoride in seawater using transient isotachophoresis

  • Keiichi Fukushi
  • Yuki Fujita
  • Junpei Nonogaki
  • Jun-ichi Tsujimoto
  • Takanari Hattori
  • Hideyuki Inui
  • Vladimir P. Beškoski
  • Hiroki Hotta
  • Mitsuru Hayashi
  • Takeshi Nakano
Research Paper


We developed capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with indirect UV detection for the determination of fluoride (F) in seawater using transient isotachophoresis (tITP) as an on-line concentration procedure. A method of correcting sample salinity effects was also proposed so that F concentrations were obtained using a calibration graph. The proposed method is simple: it requires no sample pretreatment aside from dilution. The following optimum conditions were established: background electrolyte (BGE), 5 mM 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid (PDC) adjusted to pH 3.5 containing 0.03% m/v hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC); detection wavelength, 200 nm; vacuum (50 kPa) injection period of sample, 5 s (254 nL); and applied voltage, 23 kV with the sample inlet side as the cathode. The limit of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) and limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N = 10) for F reached 0.024 and 0.070 mg/L, respectively. The respective values of the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the peak area, peak height, and migration time for F were 2.5, 3.4, and 0.30%. The proposed method was applied for the determination of F in seawater samples collected from coastal waters of western Japan during August 26–28, 2014. Both results obtained using standard addition method and a calibration graph agreed with those obtained using a conventional spectrophotometric method.


Indirect detection Leading type sample self-stacking Product of migration time by peak area Salinity Working graph 



This work was in part supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research [grant number 25550064] from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science for H. I.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest related to this study.

Supplementary material

216_2017_838_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (162 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 162 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Keiichi Fukushi
    • 1
  • Yuki Fujita
    • 2
  • Junpei Nonogaki
    • 2
  • Jun-ichi Tsujimoto
    • 3
  • Takanari Hattori
    • 4
  • Hideyuki Inui
    • 1
  • Vladimir P. Beškoski
    • 5
  • Hiroki Hotta
    • 4
  • Mitsuru Hayashi
    • 4
  • Takeshi Nakano
    • 6
  1. 1.Kobe University Biosignal Research CenterKobeJapan
  2. 2.Kobe University Faculty of Maritime SciencesKobeJapan
  3. 3.Kiso Chemical Enterprises Ltd.KobeJapan
  4. 4.Kobe University Graduate School of Maritime SciencesKobeJapan
  5. 5.University of Belgrade Faculty of ChemistryBelgradeSerbia
  6. 6.Osaka University Research Center for Environmental PreservationOsakaJapan

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