A new approach for the extraction of tetracyclines from soil matrices: application of the microwave-extraction technique
The widespread use of tetracyclines (TCs) in animal husbandry is associated with their constant penetration into the environment and the threat they might pose to living organisms. While the literature data on the analysis of these substances in such matrices as food, tissues, or wastewater are quite extensive, there are still only a few methods presented for the determination of these compounds in soil samples. Moreover, among the literature methods for the extraction of TCs from soil samples, microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MAE) was used only once and in combination with liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric detection (LC-UV). However, according to the EU Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, the use of LC-UV for the determination of compounds, including pharmaceuticals, in environmental samples is not sufficient. Therefore, the development and application of a sensitive and selective method using the MAE-SPE-LC-MS/MS(MRM) technique for the isolation and identification of a mixture of oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC), and chlortetracycline (CTC) in soils is presented in our study. The credibility of this method has been confirmed with good parameters of validation. The optimal extraction conditions of three TCs using MAE techniques were to conduct double extraction for 10 min each, at 60 °C, using a mixture of ACN:McIlvaine buffer:0.1 M EDTA (2:1:1, v/v/v) and an additional cleaning of the extracts by SPE. The effectiveness of the extraction of these compounds was assessed based on two different ways (absolute recovery from 46 to 65.1% and relative recovery from 101.1 to 109.5%). Finally, the validated MAE-SPE-LC-MS/MS(MRM) method was used for the analysis of six samples from agricultural areas of northern Poland. OTC and TC, at concentrations of 11.7 and 14.5 μg kg−1 were determined in two different samples. An assessment of risk quotients was also performed. The presented method was proven to be a useful tool in the analysis of residues of selected TCs in the soil ecosystem. Obtained data on the presence of these drugs in Polish soils is the first report for this country.
KeywordsVeterinary antibiotics Microwave-assisted extraction Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry Environmental analysis
The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of the National Science Centre (Poland) under decision UMO-2014/13/N/ST4/04127 and the Ministry of Science and Higher Education in Poland under grant BMN 538-8610-B362-13 and 538-8610-B362-14. The authors are also grateful to Justyna Jastroch for her support in the experimental part.
Compliance with ethical standards
The authors state that the research did not include human and/or animal participants.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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