Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

, Volume 410, Issue 6, pp 1689–1695 | Cite as

Simultaneous pre-concentration and separation on simple paper-based analytical device for protein analysis

  • Ji-Cheng Niu
  • Ting Zhou
  • Li-Li Niu
  • Zhen-Sheng Xie
  • Fang Fang
  • Fu-Quan Yang
  • Zhi-Yong Wu
Research Paper


In this work, fast isoelectric focusing (IEF) was successfully implemented on an open paper fluidic channel for simultaneous concentration and separation of proteins from complex matrix. With this simple device, IEF can be finished in 10 min with a resolution of 0.03 pH units and concentration factor of 10, as estimated by color model proteins by smartphone-based colorimetric detection. Fast detection of albumin from human serum and glycated hemoglobin (HBA1c) from blood cell was demonstrated. In addition, off-line identification of the model proteins from the IEF fractions with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was also shown. This PAD IEF is potentially useful either for point of care test (POCT) or biomarker analysis as a cost-effective sample pretreatment method.


Isoelectric focusing (IEF) Paper-based analytical device (PAD) Point-of-care test (POCT) Protein sample pretreatment 



Following financial supports are acknowledged: National Natural Science Foundation of China (21575019), Education Department of the Liaoning Province of China (LZ2015036), National Basic Research Program of China (2014CBA02003), Novo Nordisk-Chinese Academy of Sciences Research Fund (NNCAS-2015-11), and the Strategic Priority Research Programs of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA12030202).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

216_2017_809_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (186 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 186 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Center for Analytical Sciences, Chemistry Department College of SciencesNortheastern UniversityShenyangChina
  2. 2.The Key Laboratory of Protein and Peptide Pharmaceuticals & Laboratory of Proteomics, Institute of BiophysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

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