A UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the quantification of the main compounds involved in oxidation reactions occurring in white musts and wines such as hydroxycinnamic acids, their glutathione and cysteinylglycine adducts (GRP, GRP2, 5-(S-glutathionyl)-trans-caftaric acid, 2-(S-cysteinylglycyl)-trans-caftaric acid, and 2-(S-glutathionyl)-trans-caffeic acid), and reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH, GSSG) in wine. Since oxidation is the main concern in white wine-making, directly affecting its quality, the developed method was then applied in a series of white wines made with different pre-fermentation treatments to limit oxidation at must stage. The glucose esters and/or glucosides of hydroxycinnamic acids were quantified as glucogallin equivalent. The developed method led to an overall improvement in the limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) for all the compounds studied in comparison to other methods such as high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) or diode array UV detection (HPLC-DAD). LOD values ranged from 0.0002 to 0.0140 mg/L and LOQs from 0.0005 to 0.0470 mg/L. The recoveries ranged between 80 and 110% in wines, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for precision intra- and inter-day was below 15%. The accuracy and intra- and inter-day precision met the acceptance criteria of the AOAC international norms. As far as we know, this study is the first report of quantification of GRP, 2-(S-cysteinylglycyl)-trans-caftaric acid, and 2-(S-glutathionyl)-trans-caffeic acid using these non-commercially available compounds as external standards. Those compounds represent a significant proportion of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in wines. The methodology described is suitable for the analysis of hydroxycinnamic derivatives in wines.
Wine analysis White wine oxidation GRP GRP isomers Mass spectrometry
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The authors gratefully acknowledge Coordenção de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) for the financial support of a doctoral sandwich program at Plateforme Polyphénols, UMR SPO, INRA, for N. Ferreira-Lima. Funding for this work was provided by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III, ISCIII (CIBEROBN). Financial support from GIS Infrastructures en Biologie Santé et Agronomie (IBiSA), Région Languedoc Roussillon, and INRA CNOC for funding of the UHPLC-MS and NMR equipment is also acknowledged.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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