Automatic routing of Goldstone diagrams using genetic algorithms

  • Nils HerrmannEmail author
  • Michael Hanrath
Regular Article


This paper presents an algorithm for an automatic transformation (= routing) of time-ordered topologies of Goldstone diagrams (i.e., Wick contractions) into graphical representations of these topologies. Since there is no hard criterion for an optimal routing, the proposed algorithm minimizes an empirically chosen cost function over a set of parameters. Some of the latter are naturally of discrete type (e.g., interchange of particle/hole lines due to antisymmetry) while others (e.g., xy-position of nodes) are naturally continuous. In order to arrive at a manageable optimization problem, the position space is artificially discretized. In terms of the (1) cost function, (2) the discrete vertex placement, (3) the interchange of particle/hole lines the routing problem is now well defined and fully discrete. However, it shows an exponential complexity with the number of vertices suggesting to apply a genetic algorithm for its solution. The presented algorithm is capable of routing non-trivial (several loops and crossings) Goldstone diagrams from given topologies. The resulting diagrams are qualitatively fully equivalent to manually routed ones. The proposed algorithm is successfully applied to several coupled cluster approaches and a perturbative (fixpoint iterative) CCSD expansion with repeated diagram substitution.


Goldstone diagram Diagram routing Genetic algorithm Coupled cluster 


Supplementary material

214_2019_2505_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (389 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 390 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Theoretical ChemistryUniversity of CologneCologneGermany

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