Gallic acid, a phenolic compound isolated from Mimosa bimucronata (DC.) Kuntze leaves, induces diuresis and saluresis in rats
Although present in the leaves of Mimosa bimucronata (DC.) and many other medicinal plants commonly used to augment urinary volume excretion, the effects of gallic acid as a diuretic agent remain to be studied. Wistar rats were orally treated with vehicle, hydrochlorothiazide, or gallic acid. The effects of gallic acid in the presence of hydrochlorothiazide, furosemide, amiloride, L-NAME, atropine, and indomethacin were also investigated. Diuretic index, pH, conductivity, and electrolyte excretion were evaluated at the end of the experiment (after 8 or 24 h). Gallic acid induced diuretic and saluretic (Na+ and Cl−) effects, without interfering with K+ excretion, when orally given to female and male rats at a dose of 3 mg/kg. These effects were associated with increased creatinine and conductivity values while pH was unaffected by any of the treatments. Plasma Na+, K+, and Cl− levels were not affected by any of the acute treatments. The combination with hydrochlorothiazide or furosemide was unable to intensify the effects of gallic acid when compared with the response obtained with each drug alone. On the other hand, the treatment with amiloride plus gallic acid amplified both diuresis and saluresis, besides to a marked potassium-sparing effect. Its diuretic action was significantly prevented in the presence of indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, but not with the pretreatments with L-NAME or atropine. Although several biological activities have already been described for gallic acid, this is the first study demonstrating its potential as a diuretic agent.
KeywordsFlavonoid Diuretic Natriuretic Saluretic Cyclooxygenase
This study was supported by Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), and Universidade do Vale do Itajaí (UNIVALI). Dr. Rita de Cássia Melo Vilhena de Andrade Fonseca da Silva is grateful for the Postdoctoral scholarship from PNPD/CAPES.
Compliance with ethical standards
All the protocols described here were submitted and approved by institutional ethics committee from UNIVALI (license no. 045/16) and were performed following all the international standards and ethical guidelines on animal welfare.
- de Berrazueta JR, González JP, de Mier I, Poveda JJ, García-Unzueta MT (2007) Vasodilatory action of loop diuretics: a plethysmography study of endothelial function in forearm arteries and dorsal hand veins in hypertensive patients and controls. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 49(2):90–95CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- De Souza P, Boeing T, Somensi LB, Cechinel-Zanchett CC, Bastos JK, Petreanu M, Niero R, Cechinel-Filho V, Da Silva LM, De Andrade SF (2017a) Diuretic effect of extracts, fractions and two compounds 2α,3β,19α-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oicacid and 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,8,4′-pentamethoxyflavone from Rubus rosaefolius Sm. (Rosaceae) leaves in rats. Naunyn Schmiedeberg's Arch Pharmacol 390(4):351–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- De Souza P, da Silva LM, Boeing T, Somensi LB, Cechinel-Zanchett CC, Campos A, Krueger CMA, Bastos JK, Cechinel-Filho V, Andrade SF (2017b) Influence of Prostanoids in the Diuretic and Natriuretic Effects of Extracts and Kaempferitrin from Bauhinia forficata Link Leaves in Rats. Phytother Res 31(10):1521–1528CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gasparotto Junior A, Prando TB, Leme Tdos S, Gasparotto FM, Lourenço EL, Rattmann YD, Da Silva-Santos JE, Kassuya CA, Marques MC (2012) Mechanisms underlying the diuretic effects of Tropaeolum majus L. extracts and its main component isoquercitrin. J Ethnopharmacol 141(1):501–509CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jin L, Lin MQ, Piao ZH, Cho JY, Kim GR, Choi SY, Ryu Y, Sun S, Kee HJ, Jeong MH (2017) Gallic acid attenuates hypertension, cardiac remodeling, and fibrosis in mice with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-induced hypertension via regulation of histone deacetylase 1 or histone deacetylase 2. J Hypertens 35(7):1502–1512CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Omobowale TO, Oyagbemi AA, Ajufo UE, Adejumobi OA, Ola-Davies OE, Adedapo AA, Yakubu MA (2017) Ameliorative effect of Gallic acid in doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats through antioxidant defense system. J Diet Suppl 18:1–14Google Scholar
- Phonsatta N, Deetae P, Luangpituksa P, Grajeda-Iglesias C, Figueroa-Espinoza MC, Le Comte J, Villeneuve P, Decker EA, Visessanguan W, Panya A (2017) Comparison of antioxidant evaluation assays for investigating Antioxidative activity of Gallic acid and its alkyl esters in different food matrices. J Agric Food Chem 65(34):7509–7518CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Qavi AH, Kamal R, Schrier RW (2015) Clinical Use of Diuretics in Heart Failure, Cirrhosis, and Nephrotic Syndrome. Int J Nephrol Article ID 975934, 9 pagesGoogle Scholar
- Schlickmann F, de Souza P, Boeing T, Mariano LNB, Steimbach VMB, Krueger CMA, da Silva LM, de Andrade SF, Cechinel-Filho V (2017) Chemical composition and diuretic, natriuretic and kaliuretic effects of extracts of Mimosa bimucronata (DC.) Kuntze leaves and its majority constituent methyl gallate in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol 69(11):1615–1624CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar