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Table 4 Human effects of soy foods and soy isoflavones

From: Human-relevant potency threshold (HRPT) for ERα agonism

Estrogen-related endpoint Dose/subjects Result Receptor involvement
Messina (2014)
 Bone mineral density 24,403 PM Asian women/>10 g/day soy protein No effect ERα, ERB
 Hip fracture risk reduction   28–37% ERα, ERβ; Calcium
 Hip fracture risk reduction 35,241 PM Asian women/>10 g/day soy protein 21–36% ERα, ERβ; calcium
 Hip fracture risk reduction 307 PM women 56% ERα, ERβ; calcium
 Reduced hot flashes 60 clinical trials/various products Mixed ERα, ERβ
 Reduced hot flashes > 50 mg/day total isoflavones for > 12 weeks ~ 50% ERα, ERβ
 Reduced hot flashes > 19 mg/day genistein dose threshold 29% ERα, ERβ
 Reduced hot flashes < 19 mg/day genistein dose threshold 12% ERα, ERβ
EFSA (2015)
 Breast tissue morphology   No adverse effects ERα, ERβ
 Breast tissue; disease progression 2216 women: 4 epidemiology studies of high isoflavone intake 816 women: intervention trials of soy food supplements No adverse effects ERα, ERβ
 Uterine endometrial thickness   No change ERα, ERβ