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Table 3 Estrogenic efficacy of flaxseed/linoleic acid

From: Human-relevant potency threshold (HRPT) for ERα agonism

Estrogenic endpoint In vitro activity In vivo effects
   Rodents Women
Cell proliferation (MCF-7/MDA-MB-231) ✓ [1]   
Cell proliferation (non-breast cell lines) − [1]   
Alkaline phosphatase activity − [2]   
Prog-RmRNA induction ✓ [2]   
Era binding ✓ [2]   
Erp binding ✓ [2]   
Uterine columnar luminal epithelial   ✓ [5]  
 Enhanced responses to low-dose E2   − [5]  
Uterine cell proliferation   − [5]  
 Enhanced responses to low-dose E2   − [5]  
Serum El, El-sulfate, E2    − [3]
Serum deoxypyridinoline (free-DPD)    − [3]
Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase    − [3]
Urinary estrogen metabolites altered    ✓ [3]
Blood E2    − [4]
Blood FSH    − [4]
Vaginal epithelial thickness    − [4]
Endometrial thickness    − [4]
Kupperman Index (paired t test)    ✓ [4]
Kupperman Index (Anova)    − [4]
  1. Activity; No Activity; [1] Rose and Connolly (1989); [2] Liu et al. (2004); [3] Brooks et al. (2004); [4] Colli et al. (2012); [5] Sacco et al. (2012)