A methodology for the assessment of inhalation exposure to aluminium from antiperspirant sprays
Inhalative exposure can occur accidentally when using cosmetic spray products. Usually, a tiered approach is applied for exposure assessment, starting with rather conservative, simplistic calculation models that may be improved with measured data and more refined modelling. Here we report on an advanced methodology to mimic in-use conditions for antiperspirant spray products to provide a more accurate estimate of the amount of aluminium possibly inhaled and taken up systemically, thus contributing to the overall body burden. Four typical products were sprayed onto a skin surrogate in defined rooms. For aluminium, size-related aerosol release fractions, i.e. inhalable, thoracic and respirable, were determined by a mass balance method taking droplet maturation into account. These data were included into a simple two-box exposure model, allowing calculation of the inhaled aluminium dose over 12 min. Systemic exposure doses were calculated for exposure of the deep lung and the upper respiratory tract using the Multiple Path Particle Deposition Model (MPPD) model. The total systemically available dose of aluminium was in all cases found to be less than 0.5 µg per application. With this study it could be demonstrated that refinement of the input data of the two-box exposure model with measured data of released airborne aluminium is a valuable approach to analyse the contribution of antiperspirant spray inhalation to total aluminium exposure as part of the overall risk assessment. We suggest the methodology which can also be applied to other exposure modelling approaches for spray products, and further is adapted to other similar use scenarios.
KeywordsAluminium Antiperspirant sprays Inhalation Droplet maturation Lung exposure Two-box model
We would like to thank Dr. Clare Vickers and Dr. Helge Weingart for proofreading the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors G. Pappa, H. Miertsch and J. Scheel are employees of the sponsor of the studies. However, this did not influence the objectivity of the performed study. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Bremmer HJ, Prud’Homme de Lodder LCH, van Engelen JGM (2006) Cosmetics fact sheet. To assess the risk for the consumer. Updated version for ConsExpo 4. RIVM report 320104001/2006Google Scholar
- CEN (1993) European Committee for Standardization (CEN): Workplace atmospheres-size fraction definitions for measurement of airborne particles. CEN, British Standards Institute, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Cheng KC, Acevedo-Bolton V, Jiang RT, Klepeis NE, Ott WR, Fringer OB, Hildemann LM (2011) Modeling exposure close to air pollution sources in naturally ventilated residences: association of turbulent diffusion coefficient with air change rate. Environ Sci Technol 45:4016–4022. https://doi.org/10.1021/es103080p CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- ECHA (2016) Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment; Chapter R.15: Consumer exposure assessmentGoogle Scholar
- Edwards CJC, Mills AK (1999) A Guide to Understanding Antiperspirant Formulations. In: Laden K (ed) Antiperspirants and Deodorants, 2nd edn. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- EFSA (2008) Scientific opinion of the panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and food contact materials (AFC). Safety of aluminium from dietary intake. EFSA J 6(7):754:1–34Google Scholar
- FEA (2009) Guide on particle size measurement from aerosol productsGoogle Scholar
- FEA (2013) Guide on inhalation safety assessment for spray productsGoogle Scholar
- Koch W, Behnke W, Berger-Preiß E, Kock H, Gerling S, Hahn S, Schröder K (2012) Validation of an EDP assisted model for assessing inhalation exposure and dermal exposure during spraying processes, 1st edn. Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin (BAuA), DortmundGoogle Scholar
- RIVM (2002) Multiple path particle dosimetry model (MPPD v 1.0): a model for human and rat airway particle dosimetry. RIVM, BilthovenGoogle Scholar
- Salem H, Katz SA (2006) Inhalation toxicology, 2nd edn. CRC Taylor & Francis, BocaRatonGoogle Scholar