Transcriptome profile analysis reveals cardiotoxicity of maduramicin in primary chicken myocardial cells
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Maduramicin, an excellent ionophore antibiotic, is extensively used to control coccidiosis in poultry. Numerous maduramicin intoxications have been reported in farm animal and human due to its relatively narrow safety range, with necrosis or degeneration of cardiac and skeletal muscles as hallmark. To date, the mechanisms of maduramicin-induced cardiotoxicity remain unclear in chicken and other animals. Maduramicin (5 µg/mL)-treated primary chicken myocardial cells were used for RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and bioinformatics analysis in this study. A total of 1442 differential expressed genes were identified. 810 genes were up-regulated and the rest 632 genes were down-regulated. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction, apoptosis, calcium signal and cytoplasmic vacuolization pathways were significantly affected. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis showed that gene expression patterns were consistent with RNA-Seq analysis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 (IL-8), apoptosis ratios, cleaved caspase-3, intracellular calcium level and Ca2+-ATPase activity were elevated after maduramicin (0.05, 0.5 and 5 µg/mL) treatment. Massive vacuole formation was found in the cytoplasm by morphology and transmission electron microscopy observation. Taken together, the results suggested that maduramicin exerted its cardiotoxicity by multiple molecular mechanisms in primary chicken myocardial cells.
KeywordsTranscriptome Bioinformatics analysis Maduramicin Cardiotoxicity Chicken myocardial cells
The authors would like to acknowledge the assistance of Prof. Dr. Long Chen and Shile Huang. We also thank Jinhu Huang, Tengfei Liu, Yun Hu and Zohaib Ahmed Bhutto for helpful comments on the manuscript. This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31672612, 31502120), the National Key Research and Development Program (2016YFD0501306) and a project funded by the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (PAPD).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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