This paper proposes an adaptive optimum overcurrent protection for deregulated distribution networks containing parallel feeders. The proposed adaptive coordination eliminates the maloperation of conventional overcurrent protection under different fault scenarios. These scenarios take place when faults occur close to the end of the parallel feeders specially when faults are associated with significant fault resistances. Under these faults, the current at the backup relay is almost double that at the corresponding primary. Thus, adaptive pickup setting is recommended. However, this problem is complicated remarkably when distributed generation units feed the upstream source side faults or under the removal of the power source due to the interruption of a source side breaker. Simultaneously, the proposed coordination approach enhances the sensitivity and keeps on the optimum speed by automatically identifying the faulted zone. The faulted zone is identified by monitoring both the status concerning a single feeder or two parallel feeders in service and the faulted phase current direction of each pair of relays. Thus, a new fault direction identification method is presented. This method is based on comparing the angle of the post-fault current and that of the pre-fault current. Three optimization algorithms (genetic, harmony search, and water cycle algorithms) have competed to find the optimal settings of the installed overcurrent relays for each faulted zone. The reliability of the proposed method is examined as compared to conventional coordination concepts based on a detailed simulation of an actual 11-kV cascaded parallel series distribution feeder in the Egyptian distribution network. Sample results are examined.
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For the selected distribution system, the associated parameters for overhead and cable segments are as follows:
Positive-sequence resistances are 0.194 and 0.087 (Ω/km)
Zero sequence resistances are 0.3 and 0.2 (Ω/km)
Positive-sequence inductances 1.78 and 0.305 (mH/km)
Zero sequence inductances 6.1 and 1.75 (mH/km)
Positive-sequence capacitance 0.015 and 0.48 (μF/km)
Zero sequence capacitance 0.0049 and 0.206 (μF/km)
Associated parameters of the inserted DFIG machine are as follows:
Rated power: 3 × 0.45 MW
Stator rated voltage: 0.575 kV
Stator resistance: 0.023 p.u.
Rotor resistance: 0.016 p.u.
Stator reactance: 0.18 p.u.
Rotor reactance: 0.16 p.u.
Dc-link voltage: 1.15 kV
Dc-link capacitor: 10 mF
Associated parameters of the inserted PV- based DG are as follows:
Rated power: 0.5 MW
PV array delivering a maximum of 100 kW at 1000 W/m2 sun irradiance.
DC–DC boost converter to increase voltage from PV natural voltage (273 V DC at maximum power) to 500 V DC.
10-kvar capacitor bank to filter harmonics produced by VSC.
3-level 3-phase voltage source converter (VSC).
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Elsadd, M.A., Kawady, T.A., Taalab, AM.I. et al. Adaptive optimum coordination of overcurrent relays for deregulated distribution system considering parallel feeders. Electr Eng (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00202-020-01187-0
- Adaptive coordination
- Directional relay
- Distributed generator
- Doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)
- Photovoltaic (PV)
- Genetic algorithm
- Harmony search algorithm
- Water cycle algorithm
- Overcurrent protection