Electrical Engineering

, Volume 100, Issue 2, pp 711–720 | Cite as

Research on the system characteristics of radial offset based on double LCCL

  • Xu Jin
  • Liu Le
  • Yu Pude
Original Paper


Wireless power transmission is one of the most active research direction which has a broad application prospect and huge development potential. A wireless charging system based on wireless power transmission consists of a transmitting coil at the charging station and a receiving coil in the electric vehicle. We calculate the mutual inductance between the transmitting coil and the receiving coil and analyze the trend of mutual inductance with the offset distance. Finally, we point out wireless charging system is very sensitive to an imperfect positioning of the vehicle. We think electric vehicles imperfect positioning is on a detuning state. So put forward a method that the operating frequency of the inverter is automatically adjusted to track the resonant frequency. Using the theory of reflection impedance, it is shown that the true reason for the decreases of transmission efficiency is that imaginary part impedance. It caused by the system offset. So the transmission efficiency of the system can reach a maximum when the imaginary part impedance is the smallest. Different migration of coil is verified by experiment; using MATLAB software for computer-aided analysis, we built an experimental platform of the 3.5 kW wireless charging. The experimental results verify the correctness of this view that the inverter tracks the output frequency by itself, which provides the theoretical basis for the further research in this field.


Wireless charging Double LCCL Radial deflection Frequency adjustment Maximum efficiency 


  1. 1.
    Sattarpour T, Farsadi M (2016) Parking lot allocation with maximum economic benefit in a distribution network. Int Trans Electr Energy Syst 27(1):e2234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rostami MA, Raoofat M (2016) Optimal operating strategy of virtual power plant considering plug-in hybrid electric vehicles load. Int Trans Electr Energy Syst 26(2):236–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zalzar S, Shafiyi MA, Yousefi-Talouki A et al (2016) A smart charging algorithm for integration of EVs in providing primary reserve as manageable demand-side resources. Int Trans Electr Energy Syst 27(4):e2283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Onar C, Miller JM, Campbell SL, Coomer C, White CP, Seiber LE (2013) Oak ridge national laboratory wireless power transfer development for sustainable campus initiative. In: IEEE transportation electrification conference and expo (ITEC), Detroit, MI, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Miller JM, White CP, Onar OC, Ryan PM (2012) Grid side regulation of wireless power charging of plug-in electric vehicles. IEEE energy conversion congress and exposition (ECCE), Raleigh, NC, pp 261–268Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pan T-C, Chen C-L, Lin Y-L et al (2016) New scheme to eliminate power loss of start-up resistor for low standby power consumption. IEICE Electron Express 13(20):20160873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bi Z, Kan T, Mi CC et al (2016) A review of wireless power transfer for electric vehicles: prospects to enhance sustainable mobility. Appl Energy 179:413–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Xiao C, Wei K, Liu F et al (2016) Matching capacitance and transfer efficiency of four wireless power transfer systems via magnetic coupling resonance. Int J Circ Theory Appl 45(6):811–831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pinuela M, Yates DC, Lucyszyn S, Mitcheson PD (2013) Maximizingdc-to-load efficiency for inductive power transfer. IEEE Trans Power Electron 28(5):2437–2447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhang W, Mi CC (2016) Compensation topologies of high-power wireless power transfer systems. IEEE Trans Veh Technol 65(6):4768–4778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tan P, Cao S, Gao X (2016) Adjustable coupler for inductive contactless power transfer system to improve lateral misalignment tolerance. In: IEEE 8th international power electronics and motion control conference (IPEMC-ECCE Asia), Hefei, pp 2423–2426Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Woronowicz K, Safaee A, Dickson T (2014) A general approach to tuning of a dual secondary winding transformer for wireless power transfer. In: IEEE international electric vehicle conference (IEVC), Florence, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhu Q, Guo Y, Wang L, Liao C, Li F (2015) Improving the misalignment tolerance of wireless charging system by optimizing the compensate capacitor. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 62(8):4832–4836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dang Z, Cao Y, Qahouq JAA (2015) Reconfigurable magnetic resonance-coupled wireless power transfer system. IEEE Trans Power Electron 30(11):6057–6069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Krishnan S, Bhuyan S, Kumar VP et al (2012) Frequency agile resonance-based wireless charging system for electric vehicles. In: Electric vehicle conference, IEEE, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Li S, Mi C (2015) Wireless power transfer for electric vehicle applications. IEEE J Emerg Sel Top Power Electron 3(1):4–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Duan C, Jiang C, Taylor A, Bai K (2013) Design of a zero-voltage-switching large-air-gap wireless charger with low electrical stress for plugin hybrid electric vehicles. In: IEEE transportation electrification conference and expo (ITEC), Detroit, MI, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Keeling NA, Covic GA, Boys JT (2010) A unity-power-factor IPT pickup for high-power applications. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 57(2):744–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chwei-Sen W, Stielau OH, Covic GA (2005) Design considerations for a contactless electric vehicle battery charger. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 52(5):1308–1314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bieler T, Perrottet M, Nguyen V, Perriard Y (2002) Contactless power and information transmission. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 38(5):1266–1272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chan HL, Cheng KWE, Sutanto D (2000) A simplified Neumann’s formula for calculation of inductance of spiral coil. In: 2000 Eighth international conference on power electronics and variable speed drives (IEE conference publication no. 475), London, pp 69–73Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chan HL, Cheng KWE, Sutanto D (2003) Calculation of inductances of high frequency air-core transformers with superconductor windings for DC–DC converters. In: IEE proceedings—electric power applications, vol 150, no 4, pp 447–454Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nanjing Agricultural UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Institute of China Electronics Technology Group Co., LTDNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations