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Osteoporosis International

, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 385–396 | Cite as

Milk and other dairy foods and risk of hip fracture in men and women

  • D. Feskanich
  • H. E. Meyer
  • T. T. Fung
  • H. A. Bischoff-Ferrari
  • W. C. Willett
Original Article

Abstract

Summary

The role of dairy foods for hip fracture prevention remains controversial. In this study, among US men and women, a glass of milk per day was associated with an 8% lower risk of hip fracture. This contrasts with a reported increased risk with higher milk intake in Swedish women.

Introduction

The purpose of this study was to examine whether higher milk and dairy food consumption are associated with risk of hip fracture in older adults following a report of an increased risk for milk in Swedish women.

Methods

In two US cohorts, 80,600 postmenopausal women and 43,306 men over 50 years of age were followed for up to 32 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the relative risks (RR) of hip fracture per daily serving of milk (240 mL) and other dairy foods that were assessed every 4 years, controlling for other dietary intakes, BMI, height, smoking, activity, medications, and disease diagnoses.

Results

Two thousand one hundred thirty-eight incident hip fractures were identified in women and 694 in men. Each serving of milk per day was associated with a significant 8% lower risk of hip fracture in men and women combined (RR = 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87 to 0.97). A suggestive inverse association was found for cheese in women only (RR = 0.91, CI 0.81 to 1.02). Yogurt consumption was low and not associated with risk. Total dairy food intake, of which milk contributed about half, was associated with a significant 6% lower risk of hip fracture per daily serving in men and women (RR = 0.94, CI 0.90 to 0.98). Calcium, vitamin D, and protein from non-dairy sources did not modify the association between milk and hip fracture, nor was it explained by contributions of these nutrients from milk.

Conclusions

In this group of older US adults, higher milk consumption was associated with a lower risk of hip fracture.

Keywords

Cohort Dairy Hip fracture Men Milk Women 

Notes

Funding

This study is funded by US National Institutes of Health grants CA186107, CA167552, and AG030521.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

None.

Supplementary material

198_2017_4285_MOESM1_ESM.docx (78 kb)
Supplemental Figure 1 (DOCX 78 kb)
198_2017_4285_MOESM2_ESM.docx (136 kb)
Supplemental Figure 2 (DOCX 136 kb)
198_2017_4285_MOESM3_ESM.docx (52 kb)
Supplemental Table 1 (DOCX 52 kb)

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Copyright information

© International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of MedicineBrigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Community Medicine and Global HealthUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  3. 3.Norwegian Institute of Public HealthOsloNorway
  4. 4.Department of NutritionSimmons CollegeBostonUSA
  5. 5.Department of Geriatrics and Aging ResearchUniversity Hospital and University of ZurichZürichSwitzerland
  6. 6.Departments of Nutrition and EpidemiologyHarvard T.H. Chan School of Public HealthBostonUSA

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