Shock Waves

, Volume 28, Issue 5, pp 1053–1064 | Cite as

Blast from pressurized carbon dioxide released into a vented atmospheric chamber

  • P. M. Hansen
  • A. V. Gaathaug
  • D. Bjerketvedt
  • K. Vaagsaether
Original Article


This study describes the blast from pressurized carbon dioxide \((\hbox {CO}_{2})\) released from a high-pressure reservoir into an openly vented atmospheric chamber. Small-scale experiments with pure vapor and liquid/vapor mixtures were conducted and compared with simulations. A motivation was to investigate the effects of vent size and liquid content on the peak overpressure and impulse response in the atmospheric chamber. The comparison of vapor-phase \(\hbox {CO}_{2}\) test results with simulations showed good agreement. This numerical code described single-phase gas dynamics inside a closed chamber, but did not model any phase transitions. Hence, the simulations described a vapor-only test into an unvented chamber. Nevertheless, the simulations reproduced the incident shock wave, the shock reflections, and the jet release inside the atmospheric chamber. The rapid phase transition did not contribute to the initial shock strength in the current test geometry. The evaporation rate was too low to contribute to the measured peak overpressure that was in the range of 15–20 kPa. The simulation results produced a calculated peak overpressure of 12 kPa. The liquid tests showed a significantly higher impulse compared to tests with pure vapor. Reducing the vent opening from 0.1 to \(0.01\,\hbox {m}^{2}\) resulted in a slightly higher impulse calculated at 100 ms. The influence of the vent area on the calculated impulse was significant in the vapor-phase tests, but not so clear in the liquid/vapor mixture tests.


Blast wave Carbon dioxide Rapid phase transition Rapid evaporation Vented explosion 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. M. Hansen
    • 1
  • A. V. Gaathaug
    • 1
  • D. Bjerketvedt
    • 1
  • K. Vaagsaether
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Technology, Natural Sciences and Maritime SciencesUniversity College of Southeast NorwayPorsgrunnNorway

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