In many countries, the performance of young people in upper secondary education helps determine whether or not they participate in higher education. One of the weaknesses in much of the literature in this area to date has been a focus on how potential determinants, such as socio-economic status, impact the conditional mean of secondary school performance. To address this, we instead examine the relationship between the distribution of upper secondary school performance and a range of individual and school-level characteristics using unconditional quantile regression methods and data from Ireland. We find that determinants such as parental occupation group, maternal unemployment, extra private tuition and working part-time have differential effects for low- and high-ability students and that important insights are lost by focussing on the conditional mean. The implication is that while certain factors can impact on whether or not a student is likely to proceed to higher education, other factors may affect where students go and what they study.
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This process is described in more detail in Sect. 3.
Since school type is to some extent a choice variable, controlling for endogeneity may be important. An analysis of performance in PISA tests for Ireland found that once selection was controlled for, the apparent benefit of fee paying schools disappeared (Pfefferman and Landesman 2011).
Another study within the economics of education field to use the unconditional quantile model is Andrews et al. (2016), which examines the relationship between the distribution of earnings and college quality.
See www.cao.ie for more details on the nature of the system.
This represents the latest dataset available that contains comprehensive information on CAO points and other relevant variables for young people in Ireland. Unfortunately, the survey was discontinued after 2007. According to data from the CAO, the numbers of students taking the Leaving Certificate examination has remained relatively constant over the period 2005 (54,069 candidates) to 2018 (54,440 candidates).
See Byrne et al. (2008) for more details on this dataset.
All models in the paper are estimated using sample weights. The specific weights used are designed to compensate for biases in the distribution of characteristics in the completed survey sample compared to the population of interest, which might occur due to sampling error, from the nature of the sampling frame used, differential response rates, or attrition. For more detail on the SLS sampling process, see Byrne et al. (2008).
No systematic differences between those with and without grade information was observed. Furthermore, while no national database exists to validate the representativeness of our sample on the basis of all of the variables we examine, the estimation sample was compared to a range of external data on the basis of selected variables including gender (State Examinations Commission 2019), DEIS school status (Department of Education 2019), and fee-paying school status (Department of Education 2019). Overall our data was found to be broadly representative on this basis.
A standardized variable (sometimes called a z-score or a standard score) is a variable that has been rescaled to have a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one. This is calculated by subtracting the mean of the variable, and then dividing by its standard deviation, for each individual. We present models with a standardized dependent variable and thus the estimated coefficients should be interpreted as effects measured in terms of standard deviations of CAO points. This may be more useful for readers less familiar with CAO points and the Irish system.
The quantile regressions of Koenker and Bassett (1978) model conditional quantiles but the interpretation of these is less straightforward than the approach here since individuals can be, for example, at a high unconditional quantile but a low conditional one, or vice versa.
We have excluded mother’s disability status due to multicollinearity.
This shows that selection on observables is sufficient to explain the apparent premium to fee paying schools. Pfefferman & Landesman (2011) compare fee paying status of schools using Irish PISA data. They find that allowing for selection on unobservables is sufficient to drive the estimated benefit of fee-paying schools to zero (or less).
While there is overlap in the confidence intervals of some coefficients across the four quantiles examined, we focus our discussion in this section on effects that are statistically different across quantiles.
As an extension to this analysis, we also used decomposition methods to further examine the gender gap in attainment. In particular, we applied the conventional Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition to the mean (i.e. using the OLS models) as well as across the distribution. Overall, this decomposition analysis did not reveal any particularly interesting or informative results and therefore we do not present them here. They are however available from the authors on request.
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Cullinan, J., Denny, K. & Flannery, D. A distributional analysis of upper secondary school performance. Empir Econ 60, 1085–1113 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00181-019-01756-8
- Secondary school performance
- Unconditional quantile regression