Performance analysis of the longitudinal-torsional ultrasonic milling of Ti-6Al-4V

Abstract

Titanium alloy is a typical difficult-to-cut material due to its high strength and high stiffness. To solve the problem of the low efficiency and poor surface quality in the milling of titanium alloy, this paper proposes a novel longitudinal-torsional ultrasonic vibration milling (LTUVM) process. An ultrasonic horn with spiral slots was designed to convert the longitudinal vibration into longitudinal-torsional vibration. The tooltip trajectory was modeled, and the finite elements analysis was used to analyze the cutting mechanism of LTUVM. The simulation results indicate a kind of separation cutting characteristics in every vibration cycle, which is beneficial to reduce the cutting force and improve the surface finish compared with the single longitudinal ultrasonic vibration milling (SLUVM). Then, cutting tests were conducted on Ti-6Al-4V to evaluate the performance of LTUVM. Experimental results demonstrated that the LTUVM could reduce the cutting force by 46–86% compared with the conventional milling (CM) and the SLUVM due to its separation cutting characteristics. Moreover, the surface morphology was analyzed, and a fractal dimension (FD) method was proposed to characterize the regularity and fragmental property of the machined surfaces. The surface morphology analysis results showed that the LTUVM can be used as a novel high-efficiency and high-quality surface texturing method for Ti-6Al-4V. The textured surface of the LTUVM has the superiority of high integrity and periodicity, which could be applied to effectively tune the tribological property of surface.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17

Data availability

All the data have been presented in the manuscript.

References

  1. 1.

    Ellyson B, Brochu M, Brochu M (2017) Characterization of bending vibration fatigue of SLM fabricated Ti-6Al-4V. Int J Fatigue 99:25–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2017.02.005

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Mohsan AUIH, Liu Z, Padhy GK (2017) A review on the progress towards improvement in surface integrity of Inconel 718 under high pressure and flood cooling conditions. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 91(1):107–125. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-016-9737-3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Umbrello D (2008) Finite element simulation of conventional and high speed machining of Ti6Al4V alloy. J Mater Process Technol 196(1):79–87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2007.05.007

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Shokrani A, Dhokia V, Newman ST (2016) Investigation of the effects of cryogenic machining on surface integrity in CNC end milling of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy. J Manuf Process 21:172–179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2015.12.002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Zhang C, Zhang J, Feng P (2013) Mathematical model for cutting force in rotary ultrasonic face milling of brittle materials. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 69(1):161–170. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-013-5004-z

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Maurotto A, Muhammad R, Roy A, Silberschmidt VV (2013) Enhanced ultrasonically assisted turning of a β-titanium alloy. Ultrasonics 53(7):1242–1250. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultras.2013.03.006

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Patil S, Joshi S, Tewari A, Joshi SS (2014) Modelling and simulation of effect of ultrasonic vibrations on machining of Ti6Al4V. Ultrasonics 54(2):694–705. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultras.2013.09.010

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Chenjun W, Chen S, Cheng K, Xiao C (2019) Investigation of strengthening effect on the machining rigidity in longitudinal torsional ultrasonic milling of thin-plate structures. Proc Inst Mech Eng B J Eng Manuf 234:095440541987534. https://doi.org/10.1177/0954405419875346

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Ying N, Feng J, Bo Z, Guofu G, Jing-jing N (2020) Theoretical investigation of machining-induced residual stresses in longitudinal torsional ultrasonic–assisted milling. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 108(11):3689–3705. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-020-05495-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Wang J, Zhang J, Feng P, Guo P, Zhang Q (2017) Feasibility study of longitudinal-torsional-coupled rotary ultrasonic machining of brittle material. J Manuf Sci Eng 140. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4038728

  11. 11.

    Amini S, Soleimani M, Paktinat H, Lotfi M (2016) Effect of longitudinal-torsional vibration in ultrasonic assisted drilling. Mater Manuf Process 32:616–622. https://doi.org/10.1080/10426914.2016.1198027

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Tong J, Zhao J, Chen P, Zhang Z, Zhao B (2019) Effect of ultrasonic longitudinal–torsional composite milling of the residual stress on the surface of titanium alloy. Proc Inst Mech Eng C J Mech Eng Sci 234:095440621989659. https://doi.org/10.1177/0954406219896595

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Rinck PM, Gueray A, Kleinwort R, Zaeh MF (2020) Experimental investigations on longitudinal-torsional vibration-assisted milling of Ti-6Al-4V. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 108(11):3607–3618. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-020-05392-w

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Gao G, Xia Z, Yuan Z, Xiang D, Zhao B (2020) Influence of longitudinal-torsional ultrasonic-assisted vibration on micro-hole drilling Ti-6Al-4V. Chin J Aeronaut. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cja.2020.06.012

  15. 15.

    Tsujino J, Ueoka T, Otoda K, Fujimi A (2000) One-dimensional longitudinal–torsional vibration converter with multiple diagonally slitted parts. Ultrasonics 38(1):72–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0041-624X(99)00175-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Harkness P, Cardoni A, Lucas M (2009) Ultrasonic rock drilling devices using longitudinal-torsional compound vibration. https://doi.org/10.1109/ULTSYM.2009.5441855

  17. 17.

    Rose JL (2014) Ultrasonic guided waves in solid media. Ultrasonic guided waves in solid media:1–512. doi:https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107273610

  18. 18.

    Zhang Q, Zhang J, Feng P (2019) Characteristics of longitudinal-torsional vibration of ultrasonic horn with slanting slots. J Vib Shock 38(10):63–69+83. https://doi.org/10.13465/j.cnki.jvs.2019.10.009

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Cai W, Zhang J, Feng P, Yu D, Wu Z (2017) A bilateral capacitance compensation method for giant magnetostriction ultrasonic processing system. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 90(9):2925–2933. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-016-9602-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Johnson GR, Cook WH (1983) A constitutive model and data for metals subjected to large strains, high strain rates and high temperatures. In: The 7th International Symposium on Ballistic, Hague, pp 541–547

  21. 21.

    Xu J, Deng Y, Wang C, Liang G (2021) Numerical model of unidirectional CFRP in machining: development of an amended friction model. Compos Struct 256:113075. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2020.113075

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Ying N, Feng J, Bo Z (2020) A novel 3D finite element simulation method for longitudinal-torsional ultrasonic-assisted milling. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 106. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-019-04636-8

  23. 23.

    Xi Y, Bermingham M, Wang G, Dargusch M (2013) FEA modelling of cutting force and chip formation in thermally assisted machining of Ti6Al4V alloy. In: Materials Science Forum, Trans Tech Publications, pp 343–347. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.765.343

  24. 24.

    Kay (2020) Failure Modeling of Titanium6Al4V and 2024-T3 aluminum with the Johnson-Cook material model. https://doi.org/10.2172/15006359

  25. 25.

    Özel T, Zeren E (2007) Finite element modeling the influence of edge roundness on the stress and temperature fields induced by high-speed machining. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 35(3):255–267. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-006-0720-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Feng F, Liu B, Zhang X, Qian X, Li X, Huang J, Qu T, Feng P (2018) Roughness scaling extraction method for fractal dimension evaluation based on a single morphological image. Appl Surf Sci 458:489–494. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2018.07.062

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Zhang X, Xu Y, Jackson RL (2017) An analysis of generated fractal and measured rough surfaces in regards to their multi-scale structure and fractal dimension. Tribol Int 105:94–101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.triboint.2016.09.036

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Kovalchenko A, Ajayi O, Erdemir A, Fenske G, Etsion I (2004) The effect of laser texturing of steel surfaces and speed-load parameters on the transition of lubrication regime from boundary to hydrodynamic. Tribol Trans 47:299–307. https://doi.org/10.1080/05698190490440902

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Galda L, Sep J, Olszewski A, Żochowski T (2019) Experimental investigation into surface texture effect on journal bearings performance. Tribol Int 136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.triboint.2019.03.073

  30. 30.

    Chen P, Tong J, Zhao J, Zhang Z, Zhao B (2020) A study ofthe surface microstructure and tool wear of titanium alloys after ultrasonic longitudinal-torsional milling. J Manuf Process 53:1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2020.01.040

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Li Y, Xiang D, Feng H, Gao G, Shi Z (2020) Surface characteristics investigation of ultrasonic longitudinal-torsional milling of high–volume fraction SiCp/Al. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 110(7):2119–2130. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-020-05971-x

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China [Grant No. 51705281; Grant No. 51875311] and Shenzhen Foundational Research Project (Discipline Layout) [Grant No. JCYJ20180508152128308]. The third author (Jianjian Wang) would like to acknowledge the fellowship support from Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Conceptualization, Y.P. and P.F.; methodology, J.W.; validation, Y.P., J.X. and J.W.; investigation, Y.P. and H.Z.; resources, J.X.; supervision, H.Z.; project administration, P.F. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Jianjian Wang or Huiting Zha.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.

Ethical approval

Not applicable.

Consent to participate

The authors declare that they all consent to participate this research.

Consent to publish

The authors declare that they all consent to publish the manuscript.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Pang, Y., Feng, P., Wang, J. et al. Performance analysis of the longitudinal-torsional ultrasonic milling of Ti-6Al-4V. Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-021-06682-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Titanium alloy
  • Longitudinal-torsional ultrasonic milling
  • Cutting force
  • Surface texturing
  • Microstructures