Study on hydrogen behaviors around micropores within heavy forging during heating process

Abstract

Hydrogen and micropores are widely distributed and inevitable in heavy forgings. The accumulation of hydrogen in micropores results in the formation of higher hydrogen pressure inside. In this article, the influence of heating process on hydrogen behavior around micropores is studied by finite element method. The analysis model is established theoretically and the relationship among micropore hydrogen pressure, temperature, and lattice hydrogen concentration is derived based on chemical potential balance. The results show that, during the heating process, when decomposition condition is met, hydrogen molecules begin to decompose and diffuse out of micropores. Micropore hydrogen pressure is the result of volume expansion and decomposition of micropore hydrogen molecules. Microstructures with a smaller hydrogen diffusion coefficient are more likely to form higher hydrogen pressure in micropores during heating and are more likely to form hydrogen-induced cracks. The holding temperature has little effect on micropore hydrogen pressure. Among all heat treatment parameters, the heating rate has the most significant influence on hydrogen behavior around micropores. A larger heating rate can reduce hydrogen discharge time, but increase the micropore hydrogen pressure. From the perspective of reducing micropore hydrogen pressure and heat treatment time, a heating rate of 0.05 K/s is more appropriate. This study puts forward a new mechanism of hydrogen-induced cracking in heavy forgings and provides a new perspective for formulating heat treatment processes.

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Data availability

All the data have been presented in the manuscript.

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Funding

This work is partially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant nos. 51405136 and U1604140), Science and Technology Research Fund of Henan Provincial Science and Technology Department (grant nos. 172102210269 and 192102210052), Henan Provincial Major Achievement Cultivation Project (grant no. NSFRF170503), key scientific research project plans of higher education institutions in Henan Province (grant no. 19A460003), and Henan Polytechnic University Innovation Team Project (grant No.T2019-5).

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Junkai Fan and Bo Peng conceived and designed the simulation process; Junkai Fan and Bo Peng performed the simulations; Bo Peng analyzed the data and wrote the paper; Wu Zhao reviewed the paper.

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Correspondence to Junkai Fan.

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Fan, J., Peng, B. & Zhao, W. Study on hydrogen behaviors around micropores within heavy forging during heating process. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 113, 523–533 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-021-06660-z

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Keywords

  • Hydrogen-induced cracks
  • Micropore hydrogen pressure
  • Hydrogen diffusion
  • Heating process
  • Heavy forging