Study on hydrogen behaviors around micropores within heavy forging during heating process


Hydrogen and micropores are widely distributed and inevitable in heavy forgings. The accumulation of hydrogen in micropores results in the formation of higher hydrogen pressure inside. In this article, the influence of heating process on hydrogen behavior around micropores is studied by finite element method. The analysis model is established theoretically and the relationship among micropore hydrogen pressure, temperature, and lattice hydrogen concentration is derived based on chemical potential balance. The results show that, during the heating process, when decomposition condition is met, hydrogen molecules begin to decompose and diffuse out of micropores. Micropore hydrogen pressure is the result of volume expansion and decomposition of micropore hydrogen molecules. Microstructures with a smaller hydrogen diffusion coefficient are more likely to form higher hydrogen pressure in micropores during heating and are more likely to form hydrogen-induced cracks. The holding temperature has little effect on micropore hydrogen pressure. Among all heat treatment parameters, the heating rate has the most significant influence on hydrogen behavior around micropores. A larger heating rate can reduce hydrogen discharge time, but increase the micropore hydrogen pressure. From the perspective of reducing micropore hydrogen pressure and heat treatment time, a heating rate of 0.05 K/s is more appropriate. This study puts forward a new mechanism of hydrogen-induced cracking in heavy forgings and provides a new perspective for formulating heat treatment processes.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11

Data availability

All the data have been presented in the manuscript.


  1. 1.

    Robertson IM, Sofronis P, Nagao A, Martin ML, Wang S, Gross DW, Nygren KE (2015) Hydrogen embrittlement understood. Metall Mater Trans B 46(3):1085–1103.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Barrera O, Bombac D, Chen Y, Daff TD, Galindo-Nava E, Gong P, Liverani C (2018) Understanding and mitigating hydrogen embrittlement of steels: a review of experimental, modelling and design progress from atomistic to continuum. J Mater Sci 53(9):6251–6290.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Traidia A, Chatzidouros E, Jouiad M (2018) Review of hydrogen-assisted cracking models for application to service lifetime prediction and challenges in the oil and gas industry. Corros Rev 36(4):323–347.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Barnoush A, Vehoff H (2010) Recent developments in the study of hydrogen embrittlement: hydrogen effect on dislocation nucleation. Acta Mater 58(16):5274–5285.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Dadfarnia M, Novak P, Ahn DC, Liu JB, Sofronis P, Johnson DD, Robertson IM (2010) Recent advances in the study of structural materials compatibility with hydrogen. Adv Mater 22(10):1128–1135.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Venezuela J, Liu Q, Zhang M, Zhou Q, Atrens A (2016) A review of hydrogen embrittlement of martensitic advanced high-strength steels. Corros Rev 34(3):153–186.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Lynch S (2012) Hydrogen embrittlement phenomena and mechanisms. Corros Rev 30(3-4):105–123.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Djukic MB, Bakic GM, Zeravcic VS, Sedmak A, Rajicic B (2019) The synergistic action and interplay of hydrogen embrittlement mechanisms in steels and iron: localized plasticity and decohesion. Eng Fract Mech 216:106528.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Mohtadi-Bonab MA, Eskandari M (2017) A focus on different factors affecting hydrogen induced cracking in oil and natural gas pipeline steel. Eng Fail Anal 79:351–360.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Ghosh G, Rostron P, Garg R, Panday A (2018) Hydrogen induced cracking of pipeline and pressure vessel steels: a review. Eng Fract Mech 199:609–618.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Ohnishi K, Tsukada H, Kusuhashi M, Tanaka Y (1981) Study on hydrogen-induced cracking in the heat-affected zone of heavy forgings overlaid by stainless steel. Nucl Technol 55(1):163–177.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Fan J, Chen H, Zhao W, Yan L (2018) Study on flake formation behavior and its influence factors in Cr5 steel. Materials 11(5):690.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Tanaka Y, Sato I (2011) Development of high purity large forgings for nuclear power plants. J Nucl Mater 417(1-3):854–859.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Zapffe CA, Sims CE (1941) Hydrogen embrittlement, internal stress and defects in steel. Trans AIME 145:225–271

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Tetelman AS, Robertson WD (1963) Direct observation and analysis of crack propagation in iron-3% silicon single crystals. Acta Metall 11(5):415–426.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Phragmen G (1944) On the relation between the hydrogen proportion in iron, the temperature and the hydrogen equilibrium pressure. Jemkontorets Ann 128:537–553

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Kazinczy D (1959) On the pressure of hydrogen in cavities of steel. Acta Metall 7(7):525–527.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Allen-Booth DM, Hewitt J (1974) A mathematical model describing the effects of micro voids upon the diffusion of hydrogen in iron and steel. Acta Metall 22(2):171–175.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Lange G, Hofmann W (1966) Relationship between hydrogen uptake and the porosity of iron. Arch Eisenhuttenw 37(5)

  20. 20.

    Fan JK, Du FS, Huang HG (2013) Hydrogen pressure and concentration calculation models for cavities in steel. ICIC Express Lett 7:2741–2746

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Fan JK, Yan L, Zhou HL, Cao EG (2017) Variation of cavity hydrogen pressure in the forming process of heavy forging. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 89(5-8):1259–1267.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Kuhn DK, Johnson HH (1991) Transient analysis of hydrogen permeation through nickel membranes. Acta Metall Mater 39(11):2901–2908

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Oriani RA (1970) The diffusion and trapping of hydrogen in steel. Acta Metall 18(1):147–157.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Völkl J, Alefeld G (1978) Diffusion of hydrogen in metals. Hydrogen in metals I. Springer, Berlin, pp 321–348

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Juillet C, Tupin M, Martin F, Auzoux Q, Berthinier C, Miserque F, Gaudier F (2019) Kinetics of hydrogen desorption from Zircaloy-4: experimental and modelling. Int J Hydrog Energy 44(39):21264–21278.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Hurley C, Martin F, Marchetti L, Chêne J, Blanc C, Andrieu E (2015) Numerical modeling of thermal desorption mass spectroscopy (TDS) for the study of hydrogen diffusion and trapping interactions in metals. Int J Hydrog Energy 40(8):3402–3414.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Depover T, Verbeken K (2018) Thermal desorption spectroscopy study of the hydrogen trapping ability of W based precipitates in a Q&T matrix. Int J Hydrog Energy 43(11):5760–5769.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Raina A, Deshpande VS, Fleck NA (2018) Analysis of thermal desorption of hydrogen in metallic alloys. Acta Mater 144:777–785.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Fangnon E, Malitckii E, Yagodzinskyy Y, Vilaça P (2020) Improved accuracy of thermal desorption spectroscopy by specimen cooling during measurement of hydrogen concentration in a high-strength steel. Materials 13(5):1252.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Nechaev YS, Alexandrova NM, Cheretaeva AO, Kuznetsov VL, Öchsner A, Kostikova EK, Zaika YV (2020) Studying the thermal desorption of hydrogen in some carbon nanostructures and graphite. Int J Hydrog Energy 45(46):25030–25042.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work is partially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant nos. 51405136 and U1604140), Science and Technology Research Fund of Henan Provincial Science and Technology Department (grant nos. 172102210269 and 192102210052), Henan Provincial Major Achievement Cultivation Project (grant no. NSFRF170503), key scientific research project plans of higher education institutions in Henan Province (grant no. 19A460003), and Henan Polytechnic University Innovation Team Project (grant No.T2019-5).

Author information




Junkai Fan and Bo Peng conceived and designed the simulation process; Junkai Fan and Bo Peng performed the simulations; Bo Peng analyzed the data and wrote the paper; Wu Zhao reviewed the paper.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Junkai Fan.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval and consent to participate

The article follows the guidelines of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and involves no studies on human or animal subjects. Consent to participate is not applicable. The article involves no studies on humans.

Consent for publication

Not applicable. The article involves no studies on humans.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Fan, J., Peng, B. & Zhao, W. Study on hydrogen behaviors around micropores within heavy forging during heating process. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 113, 523–533 (2021).

Download citation


  • Hydrogen-induced cracks
  • Micropore hydrogen pressure
  • Hydrogen diffusion
  • Heating process
  • Heavy forging