Owing to their inferior hot hardness in comparison with alumina-based ceramics and polycrystalline cubic boron nitride, the performance of coated carbide tools when turning hardened steels strongly relies on proper chemical composition and carbide grain size, together with adequate cutting edge preparation. This work investigates the effect of geometric parameters on the performance of cutting tools applied to turning of AISI 4140 steel hardened to 40 and 50 HRC, in terms of the components of the turning force and temperature. Additionally to well-established geometric parameters, such as the projection of the hone radius on the rake face (Sγ), the projection of the hone radius on the clearance face (Sα), and the form factor K (ratio of Sγ to Sα), a novel parameter is proposed, namely perimeter ratio (P), which represents the ratio of the perimeter of the modified cutting edge to the circumference of the standard honed edge. Moreover, the experimental results were compared with analytical and numerical findings in order to assess their effectiveness in predicting the components of the turning force and chip temperature. The results indicated that analytical modeling was capable to satisfactorily predict the variation of the force components with edge preparation, using as input the value of the corresponding experimental forces for the standard honed cutting edge. On the other hand, the numerical modeling was successfully applied to predict the components of the resultant force at the expense of higher computational effort. The cutting force was not drastically affected by edge preparation, whereas the feed and passive forces increased with P and Sα and the form factor K was not capable to provide a consistent relationship with both the feed and passive forces. Both the experimental and numerical temperatures of the chip and the numerical temperature at the tool-chip interface did not present a straightforward trend with regard to edge preparation.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Lima JG, Ávila RF, Abrão AM (2007) Turning of hardened AISI 4340 steel using coated carbide inserts. Proc IMechE B J Eng Manuf 221:1359–1366
Matsumoto Y, Barash MM, Liu CR (1986) Effect of hardness on the surface integrity of AISI 4340 steel. Trans ASME J Eng Ind 112:245–252
Bergmann B, Grove T (2018) Basic principles for the design of cutting edge roundings. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 67:73–78
Aurich JC, Zimmermann M, Leitz L (2011) The preparation of cutting edges using a marking laser. Prod Eng Res Dev 5:17–24
Karpuschewski B, Byelyayev O, Maiboroda VS (2009) Magneto-abrasive machining for the mechanical preparation of high-speed steel twist drills. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 58:295–298
Yussefian NZ, Koshy P, Buchholz S, Klocke F (2010) Electro-erosion edge honing of cutting tools. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 59:215–218
Denkena B, Köhler J, Ventura CEH (2013) Customized cutting edge preparation by means of grinding. Precis Eng 37:590–598
Denkena B, Lucas A, Bassett E (2011) Effects of the cutting edge microgeometry on tool wear and its thermomechanical load. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 60:73–76
Zhao T, Zhou JM, Bushlya V, Stahl JE (2017) Effect of cutting edge radius on surface roughness and tool wear in hard turning of AISI 52100 steel. Int J Manuf Technol 91:3611–3618
Ventura CEH, Chaves HS, Campos Rubio JC, Abrão AM, Denkena B, Breidenstein B (2017) The influence of the cutting tool microgeometry on the machinability of hardened AISI 4140 steel. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 90:2557–2565
Khan SA, Umar M, Saleem MQ, Mufti NA, Raza SF (2018) Experimental investigations on wiper inserts’ edge preparation, workpiece hardness and operating parameters in hard turning of AISI D2 steel. J Manuf Process 34:187–196
Souza DJA, Weingaertner WL, Schroeter RB, Teixeira CR (2014) Influence of the cutting edge micro-geometry of PCBN tools on the flank wear in orthogonal quenched and tempered turning M2 steel. J Braz Soc Mech Sci Eng 36:763–774
Tiffe M, Assmuth R, Biermann D (2019) Investigation on cutting edge preparation and FEM assisted optimization of the cutting edge micro shape for machining of nickel-base alloy. Prod Eng 13:459–467
Liao T, Jiang F, Yan L, Cheng X (2017) Optimizing the geometric parameters of cutting edge for finishing machining of Fe-Cr-Ni stainless steel. Int J Manuf Technol 88:2061–2073
Yen Y-C, Jain A, Altan T (2004) A finite element analysis of orthogonal machining using different tool edge geometries. J Mater Process Technol 146:72–81
Hua J, Umbrello D, Shivpuri R (2006) Investigation of cutting conditions and cutting edge preparations for enhanced compressive subsurface residual stress in the hard turning of bearing steel. J Mater Process Technol 171:180–187
Berndt B (1998) Ramanujan’s Notebooks, vol 3. Springer, New York
Madsen K, Nielsen HB, Tingleff O (2004) Methods for non-linear least squares problems, 2nd edn. Informatics and Mathematical Modeling, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen
Zorev NN (1966) Metal cutting mechanics, 1st edn. Pergamon Press Ltd., Oxford
Johnson GR, Cook WH (1983) A constitutive model and data for metals subjected to large strains, high strain rates and high temperatures. In: Proc. of the 7th Int. Symp. Ballistics, Hague, Netherlands, pp 541–547
Hosford WF, Caddell RM (2011) Metal forming – mechanics and metallurgy, 4th edn. Cambridge University Press, New York
JAHM SOFTWARE. MPDB (Material Properties Database). https://www.jahm.com/. Accessed in 03/07/2020
ASM HANDBOOK (2013) Steel heat treating fundamentals and processes, vol 4A. ASM International, Materials Park
Rosochowska M, Balendra R, Chodnikiewicz K (2003) Measurements of thermal contact conductance. J Mater Process Technol 35:204–210
Haddag B, Kagnaya T, Nouari M (2012) A new heat transfer analysis in machining based on two steps of 3D finite element modeling and experimental validation. Heat Mass Transf 49:129–145
The authors would like to thank the Brazilian-German Collaborative Research Initiative on Manufacturing Technology (CAPES/DFG BRAGECRIM 029/14) supported by the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (Brazil) and the German Research Foundation.
This work was funded by the Brazilian-German Collaborative Research Initiative on Manufacturing Technology supported by the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (Brazil) and the German Research Foundation (Grant CAPES/DFG BRAGECRIM 029/14).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Consent to participate
Consent for publication
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Ventura, C.E.H., Magalhães, F.C., Abrão, A.M. et al. Performance evaluation of the edge preparation of tungsten carbide inserts applied to hard turning. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 112, 3515–3527 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-020-06585-z
- Cutting edge preparation
- Numerical simulation
- Hardened steel