Research on magnetorheological elastomer forming process for complicated superalloy hollow part


In this paper, a magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) forming process is developed to form a complicated hollow part of GH4169 superalloy. The novel forming process can realize the differential loading of the forming pressure and avoid liquid leaking in the conventional hydraulic forming process. The principle of the MRE forming process can be illustrated as that the MRE will bulge under the effect of the applied magnetic field. Hence, the local forming pressure in the deformation zone of the part will increase during the forming process. To estimate the range of current and the axial displacement of the punch, a power equation based on power approach and electromagnetic theory is established. Numerical simulations and experiments study the deformation process and the die filling of tube blank under different magnetic field intensities. Response surface methodology (RSM) is used to determine the optimal process parameters. RSM also models the predicted equations of the maximum thinning ratio and the average bulging diameter. Besides, the fitted RSM model’s accuracy is quantified by a statistical method of analysis of variance. Finally, the predicted equations’ reliability and the optimal process parameters obtained by RSM are proved by a validated experiment.

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Data availability

All the data and materials in this study are available upon reasonable request.


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The authors would like to acknowledge the support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51875548) and the Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS (Grant No. 2019195).


This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51875548) and the Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS (Grant No. 2019195).

Author information




Hao Li: conceived and designed the study, performed the theoretical deduction, performed the experiments and the finite element simulations, performed the process optimization and analysis, wrote the paper, proofed reading. Yong Xu: conceived and designed the study, revised the analysis, proofed reading. Ming Li: conceived and designed the study, performed the experiments and the finite element simulations, proofed reading. Dayong Chen: conceived and designed the study, performed the theoretical deduction, performed the analysis, proofed reading. Shihong Zhang: conceived and designed the study, revised the analysis, proofed reading. Gui Wei: performed the experiments, proofed reading. Qiucheng Yang: performed the experiments, proofed reading. Hui Wang: performed the experiments, proofed reading. Xunzhong Guo: performed the experiments, performed the analysis, proofed reading.

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Correspondence to Yong Xu.

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Li, H., Xu, Y., Li, M. et al. Research on magnetorheological elastomer forming process for complicated superalloy hollow part. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 113, 231–246 (2021).

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  • GH4169 alloy
  • Magnetorheological elastomer
  • Tube forming
  • Response surface methodology
  • Process optimization