Optimization of hot backward extrusion process parameters for flat bottom cylindrical parts of Mg-8Gd-3Y alloy based on 3D processing maps


Based on three-dimensional processing maps and numerical simulation, a demo flat bottom cylindrical part (with outer diameter of 235 mm, wall thickness of 34 mm, and height of 255 mm) of high strength Mg-Gd-Y magnesium alloy was hot backward extruded by adding an outer flange to increase the overall deformation amount and strain uniformity. Firstly, on the basis of dynamic material model and Murty instability criterion, isothermal compression stress-strain curves of cast-homogenized Mg-8Gd-3Y alloy were used to construct the processing maps. The processing maps show that the formable domain is relatively narrow: at lower strain rates ranging from 0.001 to 0.006 s−1, and the suitable temperature is from 350 to 450 °C; and at higher strain rates ranging from 0.006 to 0.1 s−1, and the temperature is from 410 to 450 °C. Then, the processing maps were integrated into a finite element software to simulate the forming process of cylindrical parts, and the influences of deformation temperature and velocity on the power dissipation efficiencies of different positions of flanged cylindrical parts were mainly discussed. The simulation results indicate that the average strain of flanged cylindrical parts reaches 30.07% and is larger than that of unflanged cylindrical parts, and the standard deviation of the strain of flanged cylindrical parts is 19.35% and less than that of unflanged cylindrical parts. The optimal process parameters corresponding to the maximum power dissipation efficiency are the temperature of 430 °C and velocity of 1 mm/s. Finally, under the optimal forming condition, the hot backward extrusion experiments of flanged cylindrical parts were conducted. The experimental results exhibit that the flanged cylindrical parts could be properly formed with good surface quality, and have relatively uniform microstructures and mechanical properties. The difference of tensile strength between the bottom and cylindrical body is less than 5 MPa, and the hardness difference is less than 1.6 HV.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19


  1. 1.

    Xie ZY, Tian Y, Li Q, Zhou JC, Meng Y (2019) Effects of forming parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of a cup-shaped Mg–8.20Gd–4.48Y–3.34Zn–0.36Zr alloy sample manufactured by thixoforming. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 101:1807–1819

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Alizadeh R, Mahmudi R, Ruano OA, Ngan AHW (2017) Constitutive analysis and hot deformation behavior of fine-grained Mg-Gd-Y-Zr alloys. Metall Mater Trans A 48A:5699–5709

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Zeng J, Wei XX, Dong S, Wang FH, Jin L, Dong J (2020) 3D processing maps of cast Mg-8Gd-3Y alloy at high strain rates and their application in plane strain forging. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 106:133–141

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Xia XS, Xiao L, Chen Q, Li H, Tan YJ (2018) Hot forging process design, microstructure, and mechanical properties of cast Mg–Zn–Y–Zr magnesium alloy tank cover. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 94:4199–4208

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Yuan L, Zhao Z, Shi WC, Xu FC, Shan DB (2015) Isothermal forming of large-size AZ80A magnesium alloy forging with high mechanical properties. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 78:2037–2047

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Liu B, Zhang ZY, Jin L, Gao JL, Dong J (2016) Forgeability, microstructure and mechanical properties of a free-forged Mg–8Gd–3Y–0.4Zr alloy. Mater Sci Eng A 650:233–239

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Liu J, Cui ZS (2009) Hot forging process design and parameters determination of magnesium alloy AZ31B spur bevel gear. J Mater Process Technol 209:5871–5880

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Liu J, Li JQ, Cui ZS, Qu HA, Ruan LQ (2013) Material driven workability simulation by FEM including 3D processing maps for magnesium alloy. Trans Nonferrous Metals Soc China 23:3011–3019

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Sun CY, Xiang Y, Liu G, Zuo X, Wang MQ, Zhang QD (2017) Extrusion limit diagram of IN 690 super-alloy tube based on hot processing map. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 89:3419–3428

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Lu J, Song Y, Hua L, Zheng KL, Dai DG (2018) Thermal deformation behavior and processing maps of 7075 aluminum alloy sheet based on isothermal uniaxial tensile tests. J Alloys Compd 767:856–869

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Li PW, Li HZ, Huang L, Liang XP, Zhu ZX (2017) Characterization of hot deformation behavior of AA2014 forging aluminum alloy using processing map. Trans Nonferrous Metals Soc China 27:1677–1688

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Sun Y, Feng XY, Hu LX, Zhang H, Zhang HZ (2018) Characterization on hot deformation behavior of Ti-22Al-25Nb alloy using a combination of 3D processing maps and finite element simulation method. J Alloys Compd 753:256–271

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Du ZH, Jiang SS, Zhang KF (2015) The hot deformation behavior and processing map of Ti–47.5Al–Cr–V alloy. Mater Des 86:464–476

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Li JQ, Liu J, Cui ZS (2014) Characterization of hot deformation behavior of extruded ZK60 magnesium alloy using 3D processing maps. Mater Des 56:889–897

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Shang X, Zhou J, Wang X, Luo Y (2015) Optimizing and identifying the process parameters of AZ31 magnesium alloy in hot compression on the base of processing maps. J Alloys Compd 629:155–161

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Lv BJ, Peng J, Shi DW, Tang AT, Pan FS (2013) Constitutive modeling of dynamic recrystallization kinetics and processing maps of Mg–2.0Zn–0.3Zr alloy based on true stress–strain curves. Mater Sci Eng A 560:727–733

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Xu C, Pan JP, Nakata T, Qiao XG, Chi YQ, Zheng MY, Kamado S (2017) Hot compression deformation behavior of Mg-9Gd-2.9Y-1.9Zn-0.4Zr-0.2Ca (wt%) alloy. Mater Charact 124:40–49

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Xu WC, Jin XZ, Shan DB, Chai BX (2017) Study on the effect of solution treatment on hot deformation behavior and workability of Mg-7Gd-5Y-0.6Zn-0.8Zr magnesium alloy. J Alloys Compd 720:309–323

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Azimi M, Mirjavadi SS, Salandari-Rabori A (2018) Effect of temperature on microstructural evolution and subsequent enhancement of mechanical properties in a backward extruded magnesium alloy. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 95:3155–3166

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Chalay-Amoly A, Zarei-Hanzaki A, Changizian P, Fatemi-Varzaneh SM, Maghsoudi MH (2013) An investigation into the microstructure/strain pattern relationship in backward extruded AZ91 magnesium alloy. Mater Des 47:820–827

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Zhang XY, Mei RB, Li PP, Bao L, Zhang J, Zhou YZ (2016) Numerical analysis of deformation of AZ31 magnesium alloy in backward extrusion with counter pressure. Mater Sci Forum 861:216–221

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Fatemi-Varzaneh SM, Zarei-Hanzaki A, Naderi M, Roostaei AA (2010) Deformation homogeneity in accumulative back extrusion processing of AZ31 magnesium alloy. J Alloys Compd 507:207–214

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Zeng J, Wang FH, Wei XX, Dong S, Zhang ZY, Dong J (2020) A new constitutive model for thermal deformation of magnesium alloys. Metall Mater Trans A 51A:497–512

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Ding XF, Zhao FQ, Shuang YH, Ma LF, Chu ZB, Zhao CJ (2020) Characterization of hot deformation behavior of as-extruded AZ31 alloy through kinetic analysis and processing maps. J Mater Process Technol 276:116325

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Luo J, Li MQ, Yu WX, Li H (2009) Effect of the strain on processing maps of titanium alloys in isothermal compression. Mater Sci Eng A 504:90–98

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Samantaray D, Mandal S, Bhaduri AK (2011) Characterization of deformation instability in modified 9Cr–1Mo steel during thermo-mechanical processing. Mater Des 32:716–722

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Murty SVSN, Rao BN (1998) On the development of instability criteria during hotworking withreference to IN 718. Mater Sci Eng A 254:76–82

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Ma X, Zeng WD, Xu B, Sun Y, Xue C, Han YF (2012) Characterization of the hot deformation behavior of a Ti-22Al-25Nb alloy using processing maps based on the Murty criterion. Intermetallics 20:1–7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Güzel A, Jäger A, Parvizian F, Lambers HG, Tekkaya AE, Svendsen B, Maier HJ (2012) A new method for determining dynamic grain structure evolution during hot aluminum extrusion. J Mater Process Technol 212:323–330

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was financially supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2016YFB0301103), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51701117 and Grant No. 51601112), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. PA2019GDPK0048).

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Shuai Dong.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zeng, J., Wang, F., Dong, S. et al. Optimization of hot backward extrusion process parameters for flat bottom cylindrical parts of Mg-8Gd-3Y alloy based on 3D processing maps. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 108, 2149–2164 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-020-05516-2

Download citation


  • Magnesium alloy
  • Three-dimensional (3D) processing maps
  • Formability
  • Parameter optimization
  • Finite element (FE) simulation