Research on the local formability of Al-Mg-Si alloy sheet during rapid hot gas forming

Abstract

The formation of local features in complex-shaped components is very difficult during rapid hot gas forming. To characterize the local formability of an Al-Mg-Si alloy sheet, free-bulging test and corner-filling test at different temperatures and pressurizing conditions were conducted in this study. The effects of temperature (400 ~ 500 °C) and strain rate (0.1 ~ 10 s-1) on the local formability were analyzed in detail. The local formability was reflected by the ultimate bulging ability and corner filling ability. The reason for local filling behavior was revealed from the theoretical point of view. The sheet had good bulging formability at elevated temperatures and high strain rates. The ultimate bulging ability was almost similar to the decreasing diameter of bugling die. The ultimate strain could reach 0.78 when the temperature was 500 °C, the strain rate was 1.5 s-1, and the diameter of the bugling die was 10 mm. The filling ability increased as the temperature and pressure increased. A corner radius of 2.50 mm was obtained within 1 s when the temperature was 500 °C and the pressurizing rate was 10 MPa/s. In practice, complex-shaped components with local features could be formed within several seconds by hot gas forming.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13

References

  1. 1.

    Toros S, Ozturk F, Kacar I (2008) Review of warm forming of aluminum–magnesium alloys. J Mater Process Technol 207:1–12

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Cui J, Roven H (2010) Recycling of automotive aluminum. Trans Nonferrous Metal Soc 20:2057–2063 (In Chinese)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Yuan S, He Z, Liu G, Wang X, Han C (2012) New developments in theory and processes of internal high pressure forming. Trans Nonferrous Metal Soc 21:2523–2533 (In Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Yuan S, Fan X (2019) Developments and perspectives on the precision forming processes for ultra-large size integrated components. Int J Extrem Manuf 1:1–18

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Abdelkefi A, Guermazi N, Baudeau N, Malecot P, Haddar N (2016) Effect of the lubrication between the tube and the die on the corner filling when hydroforming of different cross-sectional shapes. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 87:1169–1181

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Wang X, Song P, Yuan S (2012) Investigation on corner filling process in hydroforming of thin-walled aluminum alloy tubular part with polygonal sections. Mater Trans 53:796–800

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Chu G, Chen G, Lin Y, Yuan S (2019) Tube hydro-forging−a method to manufacture hollow component with varied cross-section perimeters. J Mater Process Technol 265:150–157

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Psyk V, Risch D, Kinsey B, Tekkaya A, Kleiner M (2011) Electromagnetic forming-a review. J Mater Process Technol 211:787–829

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Ma H, Huang L, Li J, Duan X, Ma F (2018) Effects of process parameters on electromagnetic sheet free forming of aluminium alloy. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 96:359–369

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Park H, Lee J, Lee Y, Kim J, Kim D (2020) Characteristic evaluation of electromagnetic forming system and its application to deformation prediction in bulge forming. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 107:775–789

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Karbasian H, Tekkaya A (2010) A review on hot stamping. J Mater Process Technol 210(15):2103–2118

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Chatterjee R, Mukhopadhyay J (2018) A Review of Super plastic forming. Mater Today Proc 5:4452–4459

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Merklein M, Wieland M, Lechner M, Bruschi S, Ghiotti A (2016) Hot stamping of boron steel sheets with tailored properties: a review. J Mater Process Technol 228:11–24

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Chen C, Chen M, Xie L, Gong Z, Ye J (2019) Numerical and experimental investigations of the hot stamping process for complex aircraft skin parts composed of TA32 high-temperature titanium alloy using an Arrhenius-type constitutive model. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 103:807–817

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Zhu L, Liu Z, Zhang Z (2019) Investigation on strengthening of 7075 aluminum alloy sheet in a new hot stamping process with pre-cooling. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 103:4739–4746

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Krajewski P, Schroth J (2007) Overview of quick plastic forming technology. Mater Sci Forum 551(552):3–12

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Wu Y, Liu G, Wang K, Liu Z, Yuan S (2017) The deformation and microstructure of Ti-3Al-2.5 V tubular component for non-uniform temperature hot gas forming. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 88:2143–2152

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    He Z, Fan X, Xu Y (2011) Investigation on the formability of 5A06 sheet for rapid gas forming. Rare Metal Mater Eng 40:144–147

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Aksenov S, Chumachenko E, Kolesnikov A, Osipov S (2015) Determination of optimal gas forming conditions from free bulging tests at constant pressure. J Mater Process Technol 217:158–164

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Hector L, Khraisheh M, Bower A (2010) New approach to gas pressure profile prediction for high temperature AA5083 sheet forming. J Mater Process Technol 210:825–834

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Paul A, Strano M (2016) The influence of process variables on the gas forming and press hardening of steel tubes. J Mater Process Technol 228:160–169

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Fan X, He Z, Zhou W (2016) Formability and strengthening mechanism of solution treated Al–Mg–Si alloy sheet under hot stamping conditions. J Mater Process Technol 228:179–185

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Lin Y, Chen X (2011) Critical Review of Experimental Results and Constitutive Descriptions for Metals and Alloys in Hot Working. Mater Des 32(4):1733–1759

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Mulder J, Vegter H, Aretz H, Keller S, Antonius H (2015) Accurate determination of flow curves using the bulge test with optical measuring systems. J Mater Process Technol 226:169–187

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Hamzah A, Sumit H, Abdulrahman A (2018) Determination of the yield loci of four sheet materials (AA6111-T4, AC600, DX54D + Z, and H220BD + Z) by using uniaxial tensile and hydraulic bulge tests. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 398:1307–1319

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Atkinson M (1997) Accurate determination of biaxial stress—strain relationships from hydraulic bulging tests of sheet metals. Int J Mech Sci 39:761–769

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Marciniak Z, Duncan J, Hu S (2002) Mechanics of sheet metal forming. Butterworth-Heinemann, London

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Hill R (1950) A theory of the plastic bulging of a metal diaphragm by lateral pressure. Lond Edinburgh Dublin Philos Mag J Sci 41:1133–1142

    MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Song Y, Zhao J (1985) Mechanical analysis of the optimum pressure law of filling fillet and groove in superplastic bulging. J Jilin Univ Technol 3:269–278 (In Chinese)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

This study was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51705102), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFB0306304), and the Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province (QC2018061). The authors would like to take this opportunity to express their sincere appreciation to the fund.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Xiaobo Fan.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Fan, X., Chen, X., Lin, Y. et al. Research on the local formability of Al-Mg-Si alloy sheet during rapid hot gas forming. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 108, 1839–1848 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-020-05478-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Al-Mg-Si alloy sheet
  • Hot gas forming
  • Local formability
  • Pressurizing
  • Deformation behavior