Difficult-to-machine material parts with curved surface are widely used in automobile, aviation, and aerospace fields, and the high-speed milling is the preferred processing method. In high-speed milling process of the curved surface parts, the instantaneous cutting amount is continuously changing due to the geometric feature change of the determined curve toolpath. In this way, the actual processing parameters, including cutting depth, cutting speed, and feed per tooth, are also continuously changing along the curve toolpath, which will result in a severe variation of cutting heat that has negative impact on the tool wear and the surface integrity. For TC4 which is a kind of typical difficult-to-machine material, a novel analysis method of cutting heat is proposed by transforming from time-varying variable to constant parameter for the dry milling of TC4 curved surface. As the actual processing parameters have strong correlational relationship with the instantaneous processing parameters, including instantaneous cutting area, maximum effective cutting radius, and maximum undeformed cutting thickness, the correlational relationship between the actual processing parameters and instantaneous processing parameters is established firstly. By means of fine-tuning the allowance for finish machining and regenerating the curve toolpath, the instantaneous processing parameters can be adjusted to be constant, and the transforming from time-varying variable (actual processing parameters, including cutting depth, actual cutting speed, and feed per tooth) to constant parameter (instantaneous processing parameters, including instantaneous cutting area, maximum effective cutting radius, and maximum undeformed cutting thickness) is realized. Finally, a series of milling experiments are carried out based on the regenerated curve toolpath. The results show that the cutting temperature fluctuation in curved surface milling along the regenerated curve toolpath is decreased by at least 75.81% compared with that in traditional curved surface machining, which is closer to the variation tendency of cutting temperature in plane milling. Consequently, the cutting temperature variation can be smoother by maintaining the instantaneous processing parameters constant, which is of great significance to restrain tool wear and improve surface integrity. Furthermore, the achievement provides theoretical guidance for the allowance distribution of finish machining in the dry milling of TC4 curved surface.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Cedergren S, Frangoudis C, Archenti A, Pederson R, Sjöberg G (2016) Influence of work material microstructure on vibrations when machining cast Ti-6Al-4V. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 84(9–12):2277–2291
Ma JW, Liu Z, Jia ZY, Song DN, Gao YY, Si LK (2017) Stability recognition for high-speed milling of TC4 thin-walled parts with curved surface. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 91(5–8):2819–2829
Li LW, Li B, Ehmann KF, Li XC (2013) A thermo-mechanical model of dry orthogonal cutting and its experimental validation through embedded micro-scale thin film thermocouple arrays in PCBN tooling. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 70(4):70–87
Kaushik VS, Subramanian M, Sakthivel M (2018) Optimization of processes parameters on temperature rise in CNC end milling of Al 7068 using hybrid techniques. Materials Today: Proceedings 5(2):7037–7046
Hou JZ, Zhao N, Zhu SL (2011) Influence of cutting speed on flank temperature during face milling of magnesium alloy. Mater Manuf Process 26(8):1059–1063
Ye GG, Xue SF, Ma W, Jiang MQ, Ling Z, Tong XH, Dai LH (2012) Cutting AISI 1045 steel at very high speeds. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 56(1):1–9
Korkut I, Acır A, Boy M (2011) Application of regression and artificial neural network analysis in modelling of tool-chip interface temperature in machining. Expert Syst Appl 38(9):11651–11656
Davies MA, Chou Y, Evans CJ (1996) On chip morphology, tool wear and cutting mechanics in finish hard turning. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 45(1):77–82
Rao B, Dandekar CR, Shin YC (2011) An experimental and numerical study on the face milling of Ti-6Al-4V alloy: tool performance and surface integrity. J Mater Process Technol 211(2):294–304
Kitagawa T, Kubo A, Maekawa K (1997) Temperature and wear of cutting tools in high-speed machining of Inconel 718 and Ti-6A1-6V-2Sn. Wear 202(202):142–148
Ueda T, Hosokawa A, Oda K, Yamada K (2001) Temperature on flank face of cutting tool in high speed milling. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 50(1):37–40
Fang FZ, Lee LC, Liu XD (2005) Mean flank temperature measurement in high speed dry cutting of magnesium alloy. J Mater Process Technol 167(1):119–123
Karaguzel U, Budak E (2018) Investigating effects of milling conditions on cutting temperatures through analytical and experimental methods. J Mater Process Technol 262:532–540
Bagaber SA, Yusoff AR (2017) Multi-objective optimization of cutting parameters to minimize power consumption in dry turning of stainless steel 316. J Clean Prod 157:30–46
Wojciechowski S, Maruda RW, Barrans S, Nieslony P, Krolczyk GM (2017) Optimisation of machining parameters during ball end milling of hardened steel with various surface inclinations. Measurement 111:18–28
Yildiz AR (2013) A new hybrid differential evolution algorithm for the selection of optimal machining parameters in milling operations. Appl Soft Comput 13(3):1561–1566
Azam M, Jahanzaib M, Wasim A, Hussain S (2015) Surface roughness modeling using RSM for HSLA steel by coated carbide tools. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 78(5–8):1031–1041
Pujana J, Campo LD, Pérez-Sáez RB, Tello MJ, Gallego I, Arrazola PJ (2007) Radiation thermometry applied to temperature measurement in the cutting process. Meas Sci Technol 18(11):3409–3416
González-Fernández L, Risueño E, Pérez-Sáez RB, Tello MJ (2012) Infrared normal spectral emissivity of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in the 500-1150 K temperature range. J Alloys Compd 541(30):144–149
Wang Q, Liu Z, Yang D, Mohsan AUH (2017) Metallurgical-based prediction of stress-temperature induced rapid heating and cooling phase transformations for high speed machining Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Mater Des 119:208–218
The authors wish to thank the anonymous reviewers for their comments which led to the improvements of this paper.
The project is supported by National Science and Technology Major Project of China (No. 2016ZX04001-002), Science Challenge Project of China (No. TZ2018006-0101-02), Innovation Project for Supporting High-level Talent in Dalian (No. 2016RQ012), Science and Technology Innovation Fund of Dalian (No. 2018J12GX038), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Ma, J., Jiang, W., Ye, T. et al. An analysis method of cutting heat by transforming from time-varying variable to constant parameter for dry milling of TC4 curved surface. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 103, 2133–2150 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-019-03647-9
- Cutting temperature
- Curved surface
- Instantaneous processing parameters
- Processing parameters
- Toolpath regeneration