An innovative method for producing balls from scrap rail heads

  • Zbigniew Pater
  • Janusz Tomczak
  • Tomasz Bulzak
  • Zdzisław Cyganek
  • Stéphane Andrietti
  • Mickael Barbelet
Open Access


The paper describes an innovative technological solution for producing balls from scrap rail heads. The proposed method consists in performing the following operations: the side pressing of a rail head to increase shape compactness, a process for forming a cylindrical rod by cross-wedge rolling (CWR), a CWR process for producing balls that have a diameter which is by 35% larger than that of the billet, quenching of the produced balls. Tools for the above manufacturing operations are designed, and numerical simulations are performed to verify whether the assumptions of the proposed technique are correct. A flat-wedge reversing mill is designed and constructed that enables performing the two abovementioned rolling operations without idle running, which makes the design innovative on a global scale. The implementation of the proposed method would enable producing balls for grinding media used in ball mills.


Ball forming Multi-wedge cross rolling Flat-wedge reverse rolling mill FEM Experiment 



This research was part of the agreement no. INNOTECH-K3/IN3/12/226286/NCBR/14 on conducting and financing projects under the “INNOTECH” program, IN-TECH program path.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zbigniew Pater
    • 1
  • Janusz Tomczak
    • 1
  • Tomasz Bulzak
    • 1
  • Zdzisław Cyganek
    • 2
  • Stéphane Andrietti
    • 3
  • Mickael Barbelet
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Computer Modelling and Metal Forming Technologies, Mechanical Engineering FacultyLublin University of TechnologyLublinPoland
  2. 2.KC 96 Sp. z o.o.KlatovyCzech Republic
  3. 3.Transvalor S.A. Parc de Haute TechnologieMougins CedexFrance

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