Temperature field model and experimental verification on cryogenic air nanofluid minimum quantity lubrication grinding

  • Jianchao Zhang
  • Changhe Li
  • Yanbin Zhang
  • Min Yang
  • Dongzhou Jia
  • Yali Hou
  • Runze Li


Considering the poor lubricating effect of cryogenic air (CA) and inadequate cooling ability of nanofluid minimum quantity lubrication (NMQL), this work proposes a new manufacturing technique cryogenic air nanofluid minimum quantity lubrication (CNMQL). A heat transfer coefficient and a finite difference model under different grinding conditions were established based on the theory of boiling heat transfer and conduction. The temperature field in the grinding zone under different cooling conditions was simulated. Results showed that CNMQL exerts the optimal cooling effect, followed by CA and NMQL. On the basis of model simulation, experimental verification of the surface grinding temperature field under cooling conditions of CA, MQL, and CNMQL was conducted with Ti–6Al–4V as the workpiece material. Simultaneously, CNMQL exhibits the smallest specific tangential and normal grinding forces (2.17 and 2.66 N/mm, respectively). Further, the lowest grinding temperature (155.9 °C) was also obtained, which verified the excellent cooling and heat transfer capabilities of CNMQL grinding. Furthermore, the experimental results were in agreement with theoretical analysis, thereby validating the accuracy of the theoretical model.


Grinding Cryogenic air Nanofluid minimum quantity lubrication Finite difference simulation Heat transfer coefficient Temperature field Boiling heat transfer 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



This research was financially supported by the following foundation items: The National Natural Science Foundation of China (51575290), Major Research Project of Shandong Province (2017GGX30135), and Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation, China (ZR2017PEE002 and ZR2017PEE011).


  1. 1.
    Xu X, Malkin S (2001) Comparison of methods to measure grinding temperatures. J Manuf Sci Eng 123(2):191–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhang YB, Li CH, Jia DZ, Li BK, Wang YG, Yang M, Hou YL, Zhang XW (2016) Experimental study on the effect of nanoparticle concentration on the lubricating property of nanofluids for MQL grinding of Ni-based alloy. J Mater Process Technol 232:100–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Guo SM, Li CH, Zhang YB, Wang YG, Li BK, Yang M, Zhang XP, Liu GT (2017) Experimental evaluation of the lubrication performance of mixtures of castor oil with other vegetable oils in MQL grinding of nickel-based alloy. J Cleaner Prod 140:1060–1076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wang YG, Li CH, Zhang YB, Li BK, Yang M, Zhang XP, Guo SM, Liu GT, Zhai MG (2017) Comparative evaluation of the lubricating properties of vegetable-oil-based nanofluids between frictional test and grinding experiment. J Manuf Process 26:94–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ding WF, Zhang LH, Li Z, Zhu YJ, Su HH, Xu JH (2017) Review on grinding-induced residual stresses in metallic materials. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 88:2939–2968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhang YB, Li CH, Jia DZ, Zhang DK, Zhang XW (2015) Experimental evaluation of the lubrication performance of MoS2/CNT nanofluid for minimal quantity lubrication in Ni-based alloy grinding. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 99:19–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Xi XX, Ding WF, Li ZH, Xu JH (2017) High speed grinding of particulate reinforced titanium matrix composites using a monolayer brazed cubic boron nitride wheel. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 90:1529–1538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li ZH, Ding WF, Liu CJ, Su HH (2017) Prediction of grinding temperature of PTMCs based on the varied coefficients of friction in conventional-speed and high-speed surface grinding. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 90:2335–2344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    WD Hewson, GK Gerow (1999) High performance metal working oil: U.S. Patent 5958849. 9–28Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sadeghi MH, Haddad MJ, Tawakoli T, Emami M (2009) Minimal quantity lubrication–MQL in grinding of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 44(5–6):487–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Li CH (2018) Theory and key technology of nanofluid minimum quantity grinding. Science Press, Beijing, pp 125–187Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Guo SM, Li CH, Zhang YB, Yang M, Jia DZ, Zhang XP, Liu GT, Li RZ, Bing ZR, Ji HJ (2018) Analysis of volume ratio of castor/soybean oil mixture on minimum quantity lubrication grinding performance and microstructure evaluation by fractal dimension. Ind Crop Prod 111:494–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yang M, Li CH, Zhang YB, Wang YG, Li BK, Jia DZ, Hou YL, Li RZ (2017) Research on microscale skull grinding temperature field under different cooling conditions. Appl Therm Eng 126:525–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Luo T, Wei X, Huang X (2014) Tribological properties of Al2O3 nanoparticles as lubricating oil additives. Ceram Int 40(5):7143–7149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mao C, Tang X, Zou H (2012) Investigation of grinding characteristic using nanofluid minimum quantity lubrication. Int J Precis Eng Manuf 13(10):1745–1752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mao C, Zou HF, Huang XM, Zhang, JA, Zhou ZX (2013) The influence of spraying parameters on grinding performance for nanofluids minimum quantity lubrication. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 64:1791–1799Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhang YB, Li CH, Jia DZ, Zhang DK, Zhang XW (2015) Experimental evaluation of MoS2 nanoparticles in jet MQL grinding with different types of vegetable oil as base oil. J Clean Prod 87:930–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Anuj KS, Rabesh KS, Amit RD, Arun KT (2016) Characterization and experimental investigation of Al2O3 nanoparticle based cutting fluid in turning of AISI 1040 steel under minimum quantity lubrication (MQL). MaterToday Proc 3(6):1899–1906Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lee PH, Nam JS, Li C (2012) An experimental study on micro-grinding process with nanofluid minimum quantity lubrication (MQL). Int J Precis Eng Manuf 13(3):331–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hadad MJ, Tawakoli T, Sadeghi MH, Sadeghi B (2012) Temperature and energy partition in minimum quantity lubrication–MQL grinding process. Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf 54–55(3):10–17Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Setti D, Sinha MK, Ghosh S et al (2014) An investigation into the application of Al2O3nanofluid–based minimum quantity lubrication technique for grinding of Ti–6Al–4V. Int J PrecisTechnol 4(3–4):268–279Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Su Y, Gong L, Li B, Liu Z, Chen D (2015) Performance evaluation of nanofluid mql with vegetable–based oil and ester oil as base fluids in turning. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology 1–7Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shane Y. Hong (2005) Investigation of liguid nitrogen lubrication effect in cryogenic machining. World Tribology Congress III 1:801–802Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Manimaran G, Kumar MP, Venkatasamy R (2013) Influence of cryogenic cooling on surface grinding of stainless steel 316. Cryogenics 59:76–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ravi S, Kumar MP (2012) Experimental investigation of cryogenic cooling in milling of AISI D3 tool steel. Mater Manuf Process 27:1017–1021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jawahir S, Xia T, Kaynak Y, Arvin C (2016) Cryogenic cooling-induced process performance and surface integrity in drilling CFRP composite mateial. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 82:605–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Paul S, Chattopadhyay AB (1995) Effects of cryogenic cooling by liquid nitrogen jet on forces, temperature and surface residual stresses in grinding steels. Cryogenics 35(8):515–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schoop J, Effgen M, Balk TJ, Jawahir IS (2013) The effects of depth of cut and pre–cooling on surface porosity in cryogenic machining of porous tungsten. Procedia CIRP 8:357–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Su Y, He N, Li L (2010) Cooling and lubricating performance of cryogenic minimum quantity lubrication method in high speed turning. Lubr Eng 35(9):52–55Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Li XL (2004) Research on high–speed milling technology of titanium alloy based on LN2 and MQL technology. Nanjing University of Aeronautics and AstronauticsGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    He AD, Ye BY, Wang ZY (2014) Experimental effect of cryogenic MQL cutting 304 stainless steel. Key Eng Mater 621:3–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wang YF, Huang Y, Huang Z, Yi L (2009) Belt grinding of TC4 based on the technology of cryogenic mist jet combined MQL. Key Eng Mater 416:8–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wang YG, Li CH, Zhang YB, Yang M, Zhang XP, Zhang NQ, Dai JJ (2017) Experimental evaluation on tribological performance of the wheel/workpiece interface in MQL grinding with different concentrations of Al2O3 nanofluids. J Clean Prod 142(4:3571–3583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Demas NG, Timofeeva EV, Routbort JL (2012) Tribological effects of BN and MoS2 nanoparticles added to polyalphaolefin oil in piston skirt/cylinder liner tests. Tribol Lett 47(1):91–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Li BM, Zhao B (2003) Modern grinding technology. China Machine Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Shen B, Shih AJ, Xiao G (2011) A heat transfer model based on finite difference method for grinding. Journal of Manufacturing Science & Engineering 133(3):255–267Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zhang DK, Li CH, Zhang YB, Jia DZ, Zhang XW (2015) Experimental research on the energy ratio coefficient and specific grinding energy in nanoparticle jet MQL grinding. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 78(5–8):1275–1288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zhao YX (1994) Experimental and theoretical research on the mechanism of boiling heat transfer in cold flow nuclear state. Shanghai institute of mechanics, Shanghai polytechnic universityGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mao C, Zou HF, Huang Y, Li Y, Zhou Z (2014) Research on heat transfer mechanism in grinding zone for MQL surface grinding. China Mech Eng 25(6):826–831Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mao C, Tang XJ, Zou HF, Zhou ZX, Yin WF (2012) Experimental investigation of surface quality for minimum quantity oil-water lubrication grinding. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 59(1):93–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lin ZH (2003) Gas-liquid two-phase flow and boiling heat transfer. Xian Jiaotong University PressGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lu ZQ (2002) Two-phase flow and boiling heat transfer. Tsinghua University PressGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Xin MD (1987) Boiling heat transfer and its reinforcement. Chongqing University PressGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Yang SM, Tao WQ (2006) Beijing: Higher Education PressGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Maruda RW, Krolczyk GM, Feldshtein E (2016) A study on droplets sizes, their distribution and heat exchange for minimum quantity cooling lubrication (MQCL). Int J Mach Tool Manu 100:81–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mao C, Zou H, Huang Y (2013) Analysis of heat transfer coefficient on workpiece surface during minimum quantity lubricant grinding. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 66(1–4):363–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Mei GH, Meng HJ, Wu RY, Ci Y, Xie Z (2004) Analysis of spray cooling heat transfer coefficient on high temperature surface. Energy Metall Ind 23(6):18–22Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Deb S, Yao SC (1989) Analysis on film boiling heat transfer of impacting spray. Heat Mass Transf 32:2099–2112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Chu MQ, Yu BM (2009) Fractal analysis of boiling heat exchange. Mech Progress 03:259–272Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bang IC, Chang SH (2005) Boiling heat transfer performance and phenomena of Al2O3-water nanofluids form a plain surface in a pool. Int J Heat Mass Transf. International Journal of Heat & Mass Transfer 48:2407–2419Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jianchao Zhang
    • 1
  • Changhe Li
    • 1
  • Yanbin Zhang
    • 1
  • Min Yang
    • 1
  • Dongzhou Jia
    • 1
  • Yali Hou
    • 1
  • Runze Li
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringQingdao University of TechnologyQingdaoChina
  2. 2.Department of Biomedical EngineeringUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations