Surface generation via scallop overlap analysis during grinding

  • S. Anandita
  • Rakesh G. MoteEmail author
  • Ramesh Singh


Grinding is a multipoint cutting operation, which involves random arrangement of abrasives on the tool surface. These abrasives act as cutting points with each grit particle having a unique shape and size, which makes grinding a highly complex process for analytical studies. No two grinding tools manufactured under same technical specifications have the same tool topographical features. Still, not much significant technical contribution has been made to analyse the effect of grinding wheel topographical features on the characteristic of the surface ground. Therefore, in order to mitigate the huge unpredictability in the grinding responses with respect to the variations in the tool topography, an attempt has been made to analyse the process mechanics in a way so as to make the grinding process deterministic for future applications. The present study aims at analysing the correlation between the tool topographical features such as grit protrusion height and intergrit spacing on the ground surface profile. The kinematic analysis of grit-workpiece interaction is carried out by accounting for the randomness in the grit protrusion heights and intergrit spacing and the effect of process parameters such as cutting velocity and feed per grit. The trajectory of each grit travel is calculated. A method is developed to identify the ‘active grits’, thereby reflecting only their trajectories in the surface profile. A comprehensive study is carried out on all the possible interactions of the grit trajectories, which ultimately generate the surface profile. The model analyses the effect of varying range of grit protrusion height, abrasive packing and grinding process parameters on the ground surface roughness. This analysis helps in the right range of selection of tool topographical features to obtain the desired surface characteristic.


Grinding Tool topography Kinematic analysis Surface roughness Scallop overlap 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


Funding information

The authors acknowledge the financial support by Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), New Delhi via Grant No.: ECR/2015/000514/ES. This paper is a revised and expanded version of the paper entitled ‘Surface Roughness Prediction during Surface Grinding of Brittle Materials’ presented at the 6th International & 27th All India Manufacturing Technology, Design and Research conference (AIMTDR-2016), 16–18 December 2016 at College of Engineering Pune, Maharashtra, India.


  1. 1.
    Chevalier J, Gremillard L (2009) Ceramics for medical applications: a picture for the next 20 years. J Eur Ceram Soc 29(7):1245–1255. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Koshy P, Ives LK, Jahanmir S (1999) Simulation of diamond-ground surfaces. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 39(9):1451–1470. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Koshy P, Jain VK, Lal GK (1993) A model for the topography of diamond grinding wheels. Wear 169(2):237–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Inasaki I (1996) Grinding process simulation based on the wheel topography measurement. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 45(1):347–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Malkin S, Guo C (1998) Grinding technology: theory and applications of machining with abrasives. Industrial Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhou X, Xi F (2002) Modeling and predicting surface roughness of the grinding process. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 42(8):969–977. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hecker RL, Liang SY (2003) Predictive modeling of surface roughness in grinding. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 43(8):755–761. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kumar SK, Agarwal S (2015) Predictive modeling of surface roughness in grinding. Procedia CIRP 19:375–380Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chakrabarti S, Paul S (2008) Numerical modelling of surface topography in superabrasive grinding. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 39(1–2):29–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nguyen TA, Butler DL (2005) Simulation of precision grinding process, part 1: generation of the grinding wheel surface. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 45(11):1321–1328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nguyen TA, Butler DL (2005) Simulation of surface grinding process, part 2: interaction of the abrasive grain with the workpiece. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 45(11):1329–1336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Feng W, Yao B, Yu X, Sun W, Cao X (2016) Simulation of grinding process for cemented carbide based on an integrated process-machine model. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 89(1–8):265–272. Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Butler-Smith PW, Axinte DA, Daine M (2011) Ordered diamond micro-arrays for ultra-precision grinding—an evaluation in Ti–6Al–4V. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 51(1):54–66. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Butler-Smith PW, Axinte DA, Daine M (2012) Solid diamond micro-grinding tools: from innovative design and fabrication to preliminary performance evaluation in Ti–6Al–4V. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 59:55–64. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pan J, Zhang X, Yan Q, Chen S (2016) Experimental study of surface performance of monocrystalline 6H-SiC substrates in plane grinding with a metal-bonded diamond wheel. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 89(1–9):619–627. Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liu W, Deng Z, Shang Y, Wan L (2017) Effects of grinding parameters on surface quality in silicon nitride grinding. Ceram Int 43(1):1571–1577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Deng H, Deng Z, Li S (2016) The grinding performance of a laser-dressed bronze-bonded diamond grinding wheel. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 88(5):1789–1798. Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhu Y, Lu W, Sun Y, Zuo D (2016) Grinding characteristics in high-speed grinding of boron-diffusion-hardened TC21-DT titanium alloy with vitrified CBN wheel. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 89(1–9):1269–1277. Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Koshy P, Jain VK, Lal GK (1997) Stochastic simulation approach to modelling diamond wheel topography. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 37(6):751–761. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nassirpour F, Wu SM (1979) Characterization and analysis of grinding wheel topography as a stochastic isotropic surface. J Eng Ind 101(79):165–170. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shi Z, Malkin S (2006) Wear of electroplated CBN grinding wheels. J Manuf Sci Eng 128(1):110–118. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sadeghi MH, Hadad MJ, Tawakoli T, Vesali A, Emami M (2010) An investigation on surface grinding of AISI 4140 hardened steel using minimum quantity lubrication-MQL technique. Int J Mater Form 3(4):241–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ming X, Gao Q, Yan H, Liu J, Liao C (2016) Mathematical modeling and machining parameter optimization for the surface roughness of face gear grinding. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 90(9-12):1–8. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringIIT BombayMumbaiIndia

Personalised recommendations