Advertisement

Selection of optimum polishing fluid composition for ball end magnetorheological finishing (BEMRF) of copper

  • Dilshad Ahmad Khan
  • Sunil JhaEmail author
ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Abstract

Ball end magnetorheological finishing is a recently developed nanofinishing process suitable for finishing of complex three-dimensional surfaces. This process makes use of magnetically stiffened ball-shaped tool of abrasive-mixed magnetorheological fluid that is known as magnetorheological polishing (MRP) fluid. The stiffness of the ball-shaped MRP fluid can be precisely controlled for the gentle finishing action, which is the prime requirement for the finishing of soft materials such as copper. Due to the nonmagnetic nature of the copper, the magnetic field is not enough to provide sufficient finishing forces in ball end magnetorheological finishing (BEMRF) process. In the present study, finishing forces have been analyzed for carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) and electrolytic iron powder (EIP)-based fluids. It is observed that electrolytic iron powder-based fluid exerts higher normal force during the finishing. A permanent magnet with the opposite pole facing the tool tip can enhance the finishing forces up to an appreciable extent to finish the copper workpiece significantly. The composition of MRP fluid depends on the material to be polished. The effects of fluid composition parameters on surface finish have been studied, and it is observed that abrasive mesh size is the most important fluid parameter in BEMRF of copper followed by iron powder and abrasive concentrations. Optimum fluid composition is suggested for ball end MR finishing of copper, and sample finished using optimum fluid composition is analyzed using surface analyzer and scanning electron microscopy.

Keywords

Ball end magnetorheological finishing Magnetorheological polishing fluid Nanofinishing Electrolytic iron powder Copper finishing Finishing force 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This paper is a revised and expanded version of the paper entitled “Selection of optimum polishing fluid composition for ball end magnetorheological finishing (BEMRF) of copper” presented at 6th International and 27th All India Manufacturing, Technology, Design, and Research Conference (AIMTDR 2016), Pune, December 16–18, 2016. We sincerely thank speedfam India Pvt. Ltd. for providing the polishing grade abrasives. We also thank Central Research Facility (CRF) IIT Delhi to facilitate the sharing of resources.

References

  1. 1.
    McKeown PA (1987) The role of precision engineering in manufacturing of the future. Ann CIRP 36(2):495–501.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0007-8506(07)60751-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wagal SS (1996) Diamond coated copper optics. patent no. WO 1996024488 A1Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Paquin RA (1999) Metal mirrors. In; Ahmad A (ed) Optomechanical engineering handbook. CRC press LLC, Florida, pp 89–110Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Da Silva MF, Shimizu K, Kobayashi K, Skeldon P, Thompson GE, Wood GC (1995) On the nature of mechanically polished aluminium surface. Corros Sci 37(9):1511–1514.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-938X(95)00067-T CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Givi M, Tehrani A, Mohammadi A (2012) Polishing of the aluminum sheets with magnetic abrasive finishing method. Int J Manuf Technol 61:989–998.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-011-3753-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barletta M, Guarino S, Rubino G, Tagliaferri V (2007) Progress in fluidized bed assisted abrasive jet machining ( FB-AJM ) internal polishing of aluminium tubes. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 47:483–495.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2006.06.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Xie Y, Bhushan B (1996) Effect of particle size, polishing pad and contact pressure in free abrasive polishing. Wear 200(1–2):281–295.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1648(96)07275-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ahn Y, Yoon J, Baek C, Kim Y (2004) Chemical mechanical polishing by colloidal silica-based slurry for micro-scratch reduction. Wear 257:785–789.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2004.03.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhong ZW, Wang ZF, Zirajutheen BMP (2005) Chemical mechanical polishing of polycarbonate and poly methyl methacrylate substrates. Microelectron Eng 81:117–124.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mee.2005.04.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wang YL, Wu J, Liu CW, Wang TC, Dun J (1998) Material characteristics and chemical-mechanical polishing of aluminum alloy thin films. Thin Solid Films 332:397–403.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-6090(98)01200-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tsai M, Yang W (2012) Combined ultrasonic vibration and chemical mechanical polishing of copper substrates. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 53:69–76.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2011.09.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Song M, Lee J, Lee Y, Koo J (2006) Stabilization of gamma alumina slurry for chemical–mechanical polishing of copper. J Colloid Interface Sci 300:603–611.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2006.04.046 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhang X, Zhang Y (1997) Study on the surface quality of a diamond-turned oxygen-free high-conductance copper reflector used in a high-power CO2 laser. Opt Eng 36(3):825–830.  https://doi.org/10.1117/1.601277 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhong ZW, Lu YG (2003) Fractal roughness structure of diamond-turned copper mirrors. Mater Manuf Process 18(2):219–227.  https://doi.org/10.1081/AMP-120018906 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mamalis AG, Grabchenko AI, Horvath M, Meszaros I, Paulmier D (2001) Ultraprecision metal removal processing of mirror-surfaces. J Mater Process Technol 108:269–277. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0924-0136(00)00844-X
  16. 16.
    Olabi AG, Grunwald A (2007) Design and application of magneto-rheological fluid. Mater Des 28:2658–2664.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2006.10.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Miao C, Lambropoulos JC, Jacobs SD (2010) Process parameter effects on material removal in magnetorheological finishing of borosilicate glass. Appl Opt 49(10):1951–1963.  https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.49.001951 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kordonski WI, Jacobs SD (1996) Magnetorheological finishing. Int J Mod Phys B 10(23–24):28372848.  https://doi.org/10.1142/S0217979296001288 Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sidpara A, Jain VK (2012) Nano-level finishing of single crystal silicon blank using magnetorheological finishing process. Tribol Int 47:159–166.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.triboint.2011.10.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jha S, Jain VK (2004) Design and development of the magnetorheological abrasive flow finishing (MRAFF) process. Int J Mach Tool Manu 44:1019–1029.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2004.03.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sadiq A, Shunmugam MS (2010) A novel method to improve finish on non-magnetic surfaces in magneto-rheological abrasive honing process. Tribol Int 43:1122–1126.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.triboint.2009.12.038 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Singh AK, Jha S, Pandey PM (2012) Magnetorheological ball end finishing process. Mater Manuf Process 27(4):389–394.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10426914.2011.551911 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Singh AK, Jha S, Pandey PM (2011) Design and development of nanofinishing process for 3D surfaces using ball end MR finishing tool. Int J Mach Tool Manu 51:142–151.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2010.10.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Alam Z, Jha S (2017) Modeling of surface roughness in ball end magnetorheological finishing (BEMRF) process. Wear 374-375:54–62.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wear.2016.11.039 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yamaguchi H, Yumoto K, Shinmura T, Okazaki T (2009) Study of finishing of wafer by magnetic field-assisted finishing. J Adv Mech Des Syst Manuf 3(1):35–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sidpara A, Jain VK (2012) Theoretical analysis of forces in magnetorheological fluid based finishing process. Int J Mech Sci 56:50–59.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2012.01.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Khan DA, Alam Z, Jha S (2016) Nano finishing of copper using ball end magnetorheological finishing (BEMRF) process. Proceedings of the ASME 2016 International mechanical engineering congress and exposition, Phoenix, Arizona, USA, doi:  https://doi.org/10.1115/IMECE2016-65974
  28. 28.
    Stradling AW (1993) The physics of open-gradient dry magnetic separation. Int J Miner Process 39:19–29.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-7516(93)90048-F MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wang MT, Tsai MS, Liu C, Tseng WT, Chang TC, Chen LJ, Chen MC (1997) Effects of corrosion environments on the surface finishing of copper chemical mechanical polishing. Thin Solid Films 308-309:518–522.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-6090(97)00500-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Song WL, Choi SB, CAI QC, Choi JY, Lee CH (2013) Finishing performance of magneto-rheological fluid under magnetic field. Mech Adv Mater Struct 20:529–535.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15376494.2011.640972 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.I.I.T. DelhiNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations