Long-term survival rate of closing wedge high tibial osteotomy with high valgus correction: a 15-year follow-up study

Abstract

Purpose

The influence of closing wedge high tibial osteotomy (CW-HTO) with high valgus correction on its survival is unclear. This study aimed to conduct a 15-year follow-up cohort study to estimate the long-term survival rate of CW-HTO. Factors related to poor outcomes were investigated.

Methods

A total of 159 knees in 123 patients were followed up, and 120 knees in 96 patients were enrolled for statistical analysis. Femorotibial angles were measured by standing anterior–posterior radiographs of the knee. Clinical objective evaluation was performed by the Japanese orthopaedic association (JOA) score of the knee, and scores lower than 70 points defined the poor result (PR) group. The survival rate of OW-HTO was estimated. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the risk factors for PR and conversion to total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Results

A total of 16 knees in 15 patients (13.3%) underwent TKA 14.0 ± 4.8 (4-20) years after CW-HTO. The 5-year survival rate was 99.2%, 10-year was 96.7%, 15-year was 92.5%, and 86.7% at final follow-up (17.9 years). Based on the JOA score, 44 patients (35.8%) belonged to the PR group, and their risk factors were obesity (p = 0.018), low femorotibial angle (p = 0.019), low JOA score (p = 0.040), low knee extension angle (p = 0.045), and low knee flexion angle (p = 0.046).

Conclusions

The 15-year survival rate of CW-HTO was 92.5%. While higher scores of objective outcomes were kept over long-term follow-up, the risk factors for a worsening score or TKA conversion were obesity and severity of preoperative knee symptoms.

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This study was not supported by any funding

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Correspondence to Eiji Sasaki.

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Sasaki, E., Akimoto, H., Iio, K. et al. Long-term survival rate of closing wedge high tibial osteotomy with high valgus correction: a 15-year follow-up study. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-020-06128-9

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Keywords

  • Closed wedge high tibial osteotomy
  • Survival rate
  • 15 years
  • JOA scores
  • Total knee arthroplasty conversion