The quadrant method is used to evaluate the bone tunnel position with the grid based on the Blumensaat’s line in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. This study aimed to clarify the influence of variation in the Blumensaat’s line on the accuracy of the quadrant method measurements.
A retrospective review of the radiological records of patients aged 18–30 years who underwent computed tomography (CT) scanning of the knee joint was conducted. The Blumensaat’s line inclination angle (BIA), along with the most posterior point of the posterior condyle (point P) position using the quadrant method and morphology of the Blumensaat’s line were measured on true lateral transparent three-dimensional CT images of the distal femoral condyle in 147 patients. Statistical analysis was conducted to determine associations among these measurements.
BIA was 37.5° (standard deviation 4.2°; range 27°–48°). The point P position was significantly correlated with BIA in the high/low (R2 = 0.590, P < 0.0001) and deep/shallow (R2 = 0.461, P < 0.0001) directions. The morphology of the Blumensaat’s line was straight in 35 knees (23.8%); whereas, the remaining 112 knees (76.2%) were not straight but had some hill on the Blumensaat’s line. No significant difference among the morphological variation of the Blumensaat’s line was observed in BIA and the point P position.
There was a strong correlation between BIA and the point P measured using the quadrant method, suggesting the influence of the Blumensaat’s line on the accuracy of the quadrant method measurements in ACL reconstruction. As for the clinical relevance, surgeons should be careful in application of the quadrant method for ACL reconstruction, because the variation of the Blumensaat’s line inclination influences the accuracy of this method.
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The authors thank the staff at Department of Orthopaedic Surgery in NTT East Japan Sapporo Hospital for their contribution to this clinical study.
This study was financially supported by a graft from NTT East Japan Sapporo Hospital.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest associated with this manuscript.
Ethical approval was given by Institutional review board (IRB) of Hokkaido University Hospital (IRB number, 017-063).
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Iwasaki, K., Inoue, M., Kasahara, Y. et al. Inclination of Blumensaat’s line influences on the accuracy of the quadrant method in evaluation for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 28, 1885–1893 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-019-05619-8
- Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
- Quadrant method
- Blumensaat's line
- Bone tunnel position
- Computed tomography