Dynamic augmentation restores anterior tibial translation in ACL suture repair: a biomechanical comparison of non-, static and dynamic augmentation techniques

Abstract

Purpose

There is a lack of objective evidence investigating how previous non-augmented ACL suture repair techniques and contemporary augmentation techniques in ACL suture repair restrain anterior tibial translation (ATT) across the arc of flexion, and after cyclic loading of the knee. The purpose of this work was to test the null hypotheses that there would be no statistically significant difference in ATT after non-, static- and dynamic-augmented ACL suture repair, and they will not restore ATT to normal values across the arc of flexion of the knee after cyclic loading.

Methods

Eleven human cadaveric knees were mounted in a test rig, and knee kinematics from 0° to 90° of flexion were recorded by use of an optical tracking system. Measurements were recorded without load and with 89-N tibial anterior force. The knees were tested in the following states: ACL-intact, ACL-deficient, non-augmented suture repair, static tape augmentation and dynamic augmentation after 10 and 300 loading cycles.

Results

Only static tape augmentation and dynamic augmentation restored ATT to values similar to the ACL-intact state directly postoperation, and maintained this after cyclic loading. However, contrary to dynamic augmentation, the ATT after static tape augmentation failed to remain statistically less than for the ACL-deficient state after cyclic loading. Moreover, after cyclic loading, ATT was significantly less with dynamic augmentation when compared to static tape augmentation.

Conclusion

In contrast to non-augmented ACL suture repair and static tape augmentation, only dynamic augmentation resulted in restoration of ATT values similar to the ACL-intact knee and decreased ATT values when compared to the ACL-deficient knee immediately post-operation and also after cyclic loading, across the arc of flexion, thus allowing the null hypotheses to be rejected. This may assist healing of the ruptured ACL. Therefore, this study would support further clinical evaluation of dynamic augmentation of ACL repair.

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(reprinted with permission of Stephen et al. [35])

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Funding

No outside funding was received for the conduct of this study.

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Authors

Contributions

RAGH, RW and AAA have made substantial contributions to conception and design of the study. RAGH, RW and JMS have made substantial contributions to acquisition of data. All authors have made substantial contributions to analysis and interpretation of data, and have been involved in drafting the manuscript and revising it critically for important intellectual content. All authors have given final approval of the version to be published and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Roy A. G. Hoogeslag.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

The local Institutional Review Board (IRB: Imperial College Healthcare Tissue Bank, London, UK; IRB Nr. R17007) approved this study.

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Hoogeslag, R.A.G., Brouwer, R.W., Huis in ‘t Veld, R. et al. Dynamic augmentation restores anterior tibial translation in ACL suture repair: a biomechanical comparison of non-, static and dynamic augmentation techniques. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 26, 2986–2996 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-018-4848-z

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Keywords

  • Knee
  • Anterior cruciate ligament
  • ACL suture repair
  • Biomechanics of ligament