Bone marrow concentrate (BMC) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) are used extensively in regenerative medicine. The aim of this study was to determine differences in the cellular composition and cytokine concentrations of BMC and PRP and to compare two commercial BMC systems in the same patient cohort.
Patients (29) undergoing orthopaedic surgery were enrolled. Bone marrow aspirate (BMA) was processed to generate BMC from two commercial systems (BMC-A and BMC-B). Blood was obtained to make PRP utilizing the same system as BMC-A. Bone marrow-derived samples were cultured to measure colony-forming units, and flow cytometry was performed to assess mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers. Cellular concentrations were assessed for all samples. Catabolic cytokines and growth factors important for cartilage repair were measured using multiplex ELISA.
Colony-forming units were increased in both BMCs compared to BMA (p < 0.0001). Surface markers were consistent with MSCs. Platelet counts were not significantly different between BMC-A and PRP, but there were differences in leucocyte concentrations. TGF-β1 and PDGF were not different between BMC-A and PRP. IL-1ra concentrations were greater (p = 0.0018) in BMC-A samples (13,432 pg/mL) than in PRP (588 pg/mL). The IL-1ra/IL-1β ratio in all BMC samples was above the value reported to inhibit IL-1β.
The bioactive factors examined in this study have differing clinical effects on musculoskeletal tissue. Differences in the cellular and cytokine composition between PRP and BMC and between BMC systems should be taken into consideration by the clinician when choosing a biologic for therapeutic application.
Level of evidence
Clinical, Level II.
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Arteriocyte Medical Systems Inc (JGK) and the Harry M. Zweig Memorial Fund (LAF) provided funding for the study. Personnel support (KAR, EJF) was provided by the Ohnell family foundation and the Michel Levitt family foundation. Stipend support (JMC) was provided by the Morris Animal Foundation.
Conflict of interest
Author (JGK) is a consultant for Arteriocyte Medical Systems Inc. Author (LAF) is a consultant for Arthrex Inc. All samples were de-identified prior to shipment to prevent any potential biases from being introduced into the study analyses.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were approved by the institutional research review board and in accordance with the ethical standards of the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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Cassano, J.M., Kennedy, J.G., Ross, K.A. et al. Bone marrow concentrate and platelet-rich plasma differ in cell distribution and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist protein concentration. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 26, 333–342 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-016-3981-9
- Bone marrow concentrate
- Platelet-rich plasma
- Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist