Combined ACL reconstruction and closing-wedge HTO for varus angulated ACL-deficient knees

  • Stefano Zaffagnini
  • Tommaso Bonanzinga
  • Alberto Grassi
  • Giulio Maria Marcheggiani Muccioli
  • Costanza Musiani
  • Federico Raggi
  • Francesco Iacono
  • Vittorio Vaccari
  • Maurilio Marcacci



To report the medium-term clinical and radiographic outcomes of a group of patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery combined with high tibial osteotomy (HTO) for varus-related early medial osteoarthritis (OA) and ACL deficiency knee.


Thirty-two patients underwent single-bundle over-the-top ACL reconstruction or revision surgery and a concomitant closing-wedge lateral HTO. The mean age at surgery was 40.1 ± 8.1 years. Evaluation at a mean of 6.5 ± 2.7 years of follow-up consisted of subjective and objective IKDC, Tegner Activity Level, EQ-5D, VAS for pain and AP laxity assessment with KT-1000 arthrometer. Limb alignment and OA changes were evaluated on radiographs.


All scores significantly improved from pre-operative status to final follow-up. KT-1000 evaluation showed a mean side-to-side difference of 2.2 ± 1.0 mm. Two patients were considered as failures. The mean correction of the limb alignment was 5.6° ± 2.8°. Posterior tibial slope decreased at a mean of 1.2° ± 0.9°. At final follow-up, the mechanical axes crossed the medial–lateral length of tibial plateau at a mean of 56 ± 23 %, with only 1 patient (3 %) presenting severe varus alignment. OA progression was recorded only on the medial compartment (p = 0.0230), with severe medial OA in 22 % of the patients. No patients underwent osteotomy revision, ACL revision, UKA or TKA.


The described technique allowed patients with medial OA, varus alignment and chronic ACL deficiency to restore knee laxity, correct alignment and resume a recreational level of activity at 6.5 years of follow-up.

Level of evidence

Case series with no comparison group, Level IV.


Knee ACL Osteotomy Early osteoarthritis Laxity Alignment 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefano Zaffagnini
    • 1
  • Tommaso Bonanzinga
    • 1
  • Alberto Grassi
    • 1
  • Giulio Maria Marcheggiani Muccioli
    • 1
  • Costanza Musiani
    • 1
  • Federico Raggi
    • 1
  • Francesco Iacono
    • 1
  • Vittorio Vaccari
    • 1
  • Maurilio Marcacci
    • 1
  1. 1.Clinica Ortopedica e Traumatologica II, Laboratorio di Biomeccanica ed Innovazione TecnologicaIstituto Ortopedico RizzoliBolognaItaly

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