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Table 5 Regulations for protecting observatories

From: The growing threat of light pollution to ground-based observatories

Observatory Code Date Fully shieleded Spectral management
1. Mauna Kea Hawaii County 2017 Depends on brightness, type, and use Incentives/requirements for LPSa
2. Kitt Peak, Mt. Hopkins, Mt. Graham Tucson/Pima County 2012 Depends on zone and type CCTb < 3500; incentive for LPS
3. Lowell Discovery Telescope Flagstaff/Coconino County 2011 All but decorative or low intensity NBAc required .
4. Palomar San Diego 2012 All but decorative or low intensity CCT < 2500 near observatory
5. Lick San Jose 2000 All but decorative or low intensity 3500 < CCT < 4300
6. Paranal/Armazones, CTIO, Las Campanas Chile Norma Luminica 2016 All but holiday and emergency Fractional limits on 3 wavelength ranges
7. McDonald Jeff Davis County 2007 All but decorative or low intensity No
8. Gran Telescopio Canarias La Palma 1992 All but decorative or low intensity Fractional limits on 3 wavelength ranges
9. South Africa Large Telescope Sutherland Astronomy Advantage Area    
10. El Leoncito, Argentina San Juan Province 1987   
11. Xinglong, China Ministry of Environmental Protection    
12. Ali Tibet Local Ali Government    
13. Hanle, Ladakh, India    All  
14. San Pedro Martir, Mexico Ensenada, Mexicali (State of BC) 2006 All but decorative or low intensity  
15. Siding Spring Obs., Australia Warrumbungle Shire   All but decorative or low intensity HPS or MH with permission
16. Apache Point Observatory Alamagordo, NM   All but old LPS & HPSd  
17. Calar Alto, Spain Andalucia 2010 All but holiday, emergency, historic areas E1: 0% < 440 nm, monochromatic when CRe not required
Lighting Zones Strictest Lumens / area limit Curfews Prohibitions
1. No   23:00—Sunrise Hg Vapor
2. Urban, rural & observatory protection 12,000 lumens/acre residential 23:00—Sunrise Hg Vapor, Laser, Searchlights, Uplit Signs
3., obs. protection 25,000 lumens/acre comm; 10,000 lumens/parcel residential 21:00—Sunrise Hg Vapor, Laser, Searchlights, Uplit Signs
4. Special districts, observatory protection  < 4050 lumens/fixture 23:00—6:00  
5. Special districts, observatory protection   Dimming after 0:00
6. No    Lasers & Searchlights above 110 deg from zenith
7. No   Closing or 0:00 Hg Vapor, Searchlights
8. No   0:00  
9. Radial zone for observatory protection    
10. Radial zone for observatory protection    
11. Two radial zones for obs. Protection    
12    
13    
14   23:00 Uplit signs. Lasers & searchlights above horizontal
15. Three radial zones for obs. Protection 2 × 940 lumens per property 23:00 Lasers & searchlights; uplit signs
16. Zone E1: internal 1 km radius, & periphery   23:00—Sunrise Searchlights
17 Levels by fixture and zone 0:00 or 1:00—6:00 Lasers & searchlights above horizontal, illum. signs
Other
1. Defined lighting use classes, personal cooperation of Hawaii County Dept. of Transportation
2. Illumination limits on advertising signs & roadways
3.. Defined lighting use classes
4. Urban lighting CCT < 4000 K. Advertising signs exempt from full cutoff
5. IES standards as limits
6. Luminance limits on signs. Intensity pattern constraints on luminaires
7. Spotlights within 20 deg of vertically down
8. Public lighting dimmed at 0:00; outdoor fixtures on certified list
9. Draft Regulations still pending as of 3/2021
10. Enforcement authority can regulate all new lighting installations
11. Local governments still to be engaged
12
13
14. Sport & commercial lighting turned off at closure. Specs set by technical committee of stakeholders
15. Motion detectors required for brighter fixtures. Dark Sky Planning Guidelines for implementation
16. Sports lighting exempt from shielding requirement. Required conversion of non-conforming by deadline
17. Increase of 50% is 'new' lighting. Three years to remove fixtures with > 25% uplight
  1. aLPS = Low-Pressure Sodium
  2. bCCT = Correlated color temperature
  3. cNBA = Narrow-Band Amber (LED)
  4. dHPS = High-Pressure Sodium
  5. eCR = Color Rendition