Defining acute renal failure: physiological principles

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.

    De Mendonca A, Vincent J-L, Suter PM et al. (2000) Acute renal failure in the ICU: risk factors and outcome evaluated by the SOFA score. Intensive Care Med 26:915–921

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Chertow GM, Levy EM, Hammermeister KE, Grover F, Daley J (1998) Independent association between acute renal failure and mortality following cardiac surgery. Am J Med 104:343–348

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Bosch JP, Lauer A, Glabman S (1984) Short-term protein loading in assessment of patients with renal disease. Am J Med 77:873–879

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Bosch JP, Saccaggi A, Lauer A, Ronco C, Belledonne M, Glabman S (1983) Renal functional reserve in humans. Effect of protein intake on glomerular filtration rate. Am J Med 75:943–950

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Bosch JP, Lew S, Glabman S, Lauer A (1986) Renal hemodynamic changes in humans. Response to protein loading in normal and diseased kidneys. Am J Med 81:809–815

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Ronco C, Brendolan A, Bragantini L, Chiaramonte S, Fabris A, Feriani M, Dell Aquila R, Milan M, Mentasti P, La Greca G (1988) Renal functional reserve in pregnancy. Nephrol Dial Transplant 3:157–161

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Levey AS (1990) Measurement of renal function in chronic renal disease. Kidney Int 38:167–173

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Perrone RD, Madias NE, Levey AS (1992) Serum creatinine as an index of renal function: new insights into old concepts. Clin Chem 38:1933–1953

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Clark WR, Ronco C (1998) Renal replacement therapy in acute renal failure: solute removal mechanisms and dose quantification. Kidney Int (Suppl) 53:S133–S137

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Doolan PD, Alpen EL, Theil GB (1962) A clinical appraisal of the plasma concentration and endogenous clearance of creatinine. Am J Med 32:65–72

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Kim KE, Onesti G, Ramirez O (1969) Creatinine clearance in renal disease. A reappraisal. BMJ 4:11–19

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Branstrom E, Grzegorczyk A, Jacobsson L (1998) GFR measurement with iohexol and 51Cr-EDTA. A comparison of the two favoured GFR markers in Europe. Nephrol Dial Transplant 13:1176–1181

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Han WK, Bailly V, Abichandani R et al. (2002) Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1): a novel biomarker for human renal proximal tubule injury. Kidney Int 62:237–244

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Jovanovic D, Krstivojevic P, Obradovic I, Durdevic V, Dukanovic L (2003) Serum cystatin C and beta2-microglobulin as markers of glomerular filtration rate. Ren Fail 25:123–133

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Herget-Rosenthal S, Marggraf G, Goering F, Phillip T, Kribben A (2003) Can serum cystatin C detect acute renal failure? (abstract). ISN-ERA/EDTA World Congress of Nephrology, Berlin:O11

  16. 16.

    Fliser D, Franek E, Joest M et al (1997) Renal function in the elderly: impact of hypertension and cardiac function. Kidney Int 51:1196–1204

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI (2002) Clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease; evaluation, classification and stratification. Am J Kidney Dis (Suppl) 39:S76–S92

    Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Bellomo R, Kellum J, Ronco C (2001) Acute renal failure: time for consensus. Intensive Care Med 27:1685–1688

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Kellum JA, Mehta RL, Ronco C (2001) Acute dialysis quality initiative (ADQI). Contrib Nephrol 132:258–265

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Rinaldo Bellomo.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Bellomo, R., Kellum, J.A. & Ronco, C. Defining acute renal failure: physiological principles. Intensive Care Med 30, 33–37 (2004).

Download citation


  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Acute Renal Failure
  • Renal Mass
  • Normal Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Baseline Glomerular Filtration Rate