Sludge Amendment Affect the Persistence, Carbon Mineralization and Enzyme Activity of Atrazine and Bifenthrin


Atrazine and bifenthrin persistence study was carried out in three sludge amended soil under laboratory condition. Atrazine persisted shorter in sludge amended soil sludge-3 (half-life 23.4 days) followed by sludge-2 (half-life 30.1 days) and sludge-1 (half-life 37.1 days) than unamended control (half-life 150.5 days). Bifenthrin followed the similar pattern with sludge-3 (half-life 43.1 days) which increased to 50.3, 60.2 and 75.2 days, respectively in sludge-2, sludge-1 and unamended control representing an immense influence of sludges on degradation. Duncan’s Multiple Range Test revealed that carbon mineralization process was significantly influenced by all the sludges (p < 0.0001). Sludge-3 indicated highest Cmin (initial 118.16 to final 133.64 mg CO2–C/kg) in bifenthrin and 129.91 mg CO2–C/kg in atrazine. The relatively high Cmin rate in sludge amended soil than unamended control suggested a lower persistency of both the pesticides and thus decreasing its potential ecological risk. Sludge-3 sludge amended soil increased the dehydrogenase enzyme activity as compared to sludge-1 and sludge-2 sludge in atrazine.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5


  1. Ahmad T, Ahmad K, Ahad A, Alam M (2016) Characterization of water treatment sludge and its reuse as coagulant. J Environ Manage 182:606–611

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Burnett G, Balu K, Barton H, Chen W, Gold B, Hertl P, Nelson D, Scott P, Winton K (2000) Summary of environmental fate of atrazine. Study No. 1213–99, Novartis Crop Protection, Inc., Greensboro, NC, USA

  3. Casida LE, Klein D, Santoro T (1964) Soil dehydrogenase activity. Soil Sci 98:371–376

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Das SK, Mukherjee I (2012) Effect of moisture and organic manure on persistence of flubendiamide in soil. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 88:515–520

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Das SK, Mukherjee I (2011) Effect of light and pH on persistence of flubendiamide. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 87(3):292–296

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Ferraro JR (1971) Low-frequency vibrations of inorganic and coordination compounds. Plenum Press, New York, USA

    Google Scholar 

  7. Joergensen RG (1996) The fumigation–extraction method to estimate soil microbial biomass: calibration of the kEC value. Soil Biol Biochem 28:25–31

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Kumar N, Mukherjee I, Sarkar B, Paul RK (2017) Degradation of tricyclazole: effect of moisture, soil type, elevated carbon dioxide and blue green algae (BGA). J Hazard Mater 321:517–527

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Maisnam J, Singh SB, Kulshrestha G, Arya S (2009) Persistence of alachlor in sandy loam soil. Ann Pl Protec Sci 17(2):456–458

    Google Scholar 

  10. Mukherjee I, Das SK, Kumar A (2012) A Fast, Inexpensive and safe method for residue analysis of flubendiamide in different vegetables by liquid chromatography/uv detector. Pesticide Res J 24:159–162

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Mukherjee I, Das SK, Kumar A (2016) Degradation of flubendiamide as affected by elevated CO2, temperature, and carbon mineralization rate in soil. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(19):19931–19939

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Mukherjee I, Gopal M, Das TK (2007) Soil amendment: a technique for soil remediation of lactofen. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 79:49–52

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Popov VH, Cornish PS, Sultana K, Morris EC (2005) Atrazine degradation in soils: the role of microbial communities, atrazine application history, and soil carbon. Aust J Soil Res 43(7):861

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Sharma D, Singh SB (2012) Persistence of bifenthrin in sandy loam soil as affected by microbial community. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 88(6):906–908

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Stone WW, Gilliom RJ, Ryberg KR (2014) Pesticides in U.S. streams and rivers: occurrence and trends during 1992–2011. Environ Sci Technol 48:11025–11030

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Suman A, Ahmed K, Haq I (2018) Water treatment plant sludge characterization, recovery of coagulant and its reuse. Int J Res Eng Tech 7(7):214–220

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Sluszny C, Graber E, Gerstl Z (1999) Sorption of s-triazine herbicides in organic matter amendment soils: fresh and incubated systems. Water Air Soil Pollut 115:395–410

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Toccalino PL, Hopple JA. (2010). The quality of our Nation’s waters-quality of water from public supply wells in the United States, 1993–2007-Overview of major findings. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1346: 58p.

  19. Van der Maas JH (1972) Basic Infrared Spectroscopy, 2nd edn. Heyden & Son Ltd., London, UK

    Google Scholar 

  20. Vance ED, Brookes PC, Jenkinson DS (1987) An extraction method for measuring soil microbial biomass. Soil Biol Biochem 19:703–707

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Vryzas Z, Alexoudis C, Vassiliou G, Galanis K, Papadopoulou-Mourkidou E (2011) Determination and aquatic risk assessment of pesticide residues in riparian drainage canals in northeastern greece. Ecotoxicol Environ Safety 74(2):174–178

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Wang H, Xu J, Scott RY, Zhang J, Gan J, Mac J, Wu J, Xuan R (2010) Mineralization of metsulfuron-methyl in Chinese paddy soils. Chemosphere 78:335–341

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Zibilski LM. (1994). Carbon mineralization. In: Bingham JM, Mickelson SH (eds) Methods of soil analysis, Part 2, Microbiological and biochemical properties. SSSA, Book Series No. 5. ASA, SSSA, Madison

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Irani Mukherjee.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Mukherjee, I., Das, S.K., Kumar, A. et al. Sludge Amendment Affect the Persistence, Carbon Mineralization and Enzyme Activity of Atrazine and Bifenthrin. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol (2020).

Download citation


  • Atrazine
  • Bifenthrin
  • Sludge
  • Degradation
  • Carbon mineralization
  • Dehydrogenase