Phytoremediation of Heavy Metals Using Cotton Plant: A Field Analysis
Phytoremediation, a technique dependent on the heavy metal bioaccumulation and translocation in different parts of plants, is an efficient and environment friendly method for decontamination of soils from metals. In the present study, the bioaccumulation and translocation of heavy metals was analyzed in different parts of cotton plant grown in intensively cultivated agricultural fields of Malwa region of Punjab, India. The soils were found to be alkaline in nature with very high sand contents which resulted in low retention of metals (As, Cr, Cu, Mn, Sr and Zn) in soils. But, the bioaccumulation factor and translocation factor calculated for metal accumulation analysis in cotton plant parts were found to be above 1 (maximum 9.13 for Sr) which indicated that the cotton plant (a non-edible fibre crop) can prove to be a significant system for phytoremediation and an efficient green tool for decontamination of soils from heavy metals.
KeywordsBioaccumulation Heavy metals Physico-chemical characteristics Phytoremediation Soil
The authors acknowledge PG Department of Agriculture, Khalsa College, Amritsar for laboratory facilities.
- Allen SE, Grimshaw HM, Rowland AP (1986) Chemical analysis. In: Moore PD, Chapman SB (eds) Methods in plant ecology. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 285–344Google Scholar
- Bhat SA, Bhatti SS, Singh J, Sambyal V, Nagpal A, Vig AP (2016) Vermiremediation and phytoremediation: eco approaches for soil stabilization. Austin Environ Sci 1(2):1006Google Scholar
- Blake GR (1965) Bulk density. In: Black CA (ed) Methods of soil analysis, part I. ASA, Madison, pp 374–390Google Scholar
- Bremner JM, Mulvaney CS (1982) Nitrogen total. In: Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney DR (eds) Methods of soil analysis. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp 575–624Google Scholar
- Chief Editor Room of Standard Press of China, CERSPC (2009) Compilation of standards for feed industry. Standard Press of China, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- European Union (2009) Heavy metals in wastes. European Commission on Environment. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/mining/studies/pdf/heavymetalsreport.pdf
- Jacob H, Clarke G (2002) Part 4. Physical method. In: Methods of soil analysis. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, p 1692Google Scholar
- Kabata-Pendias A, Pendias H (2001) Trace elements in soils and plants, 3rd edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
- Kaur B, Singh B, Kaur N, Singh D (2018b) Phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated soil through multipurpose tree species. Agrofor Syst 92(2):473–483Google Scholar
- Troeh FR, Thompson LM (2005) Soil and soil fertility, 6th edn. Wiley, New DelhiGoogle Scholar