Cadmium Accumulation and Tolerance in Seven Ornamental Willow Genotypes

  • Weidong Yang
  • Feifei Wu
  • Zheli Ding
  • Xincheng Zhang
  • Fengliang Zhao
  • Yuyan Wang
  • Xiaoe YangEmail author


Cadmium (Cd) accumulation and tolerance in seven ornamental willow genotypes were investigated at different Cd levels (0, 5, 25, 50, and 100 µM) through hydroponic culture in a greenhouse. Severe phytotoxic symptoms in leaves and roots including leaf chlorosis and root browning were noticed when grown at ≥ 50 µM Cd. All genotypes showed high tolerance to low Cd levels (5 µM and 25 µM Cd), in contrast to high Cd levels (i.e. 50 µM and 100 µM) that severely disturbed plant growth of all genotypes. Cadmium concentrations reached 165.0–1251.0 µg g−1 DW in leaves, 22.9–331.2 µg g−1 in stems among the genotypes at 5–25 µM Cd, and Cd mainly accumulated in the roots. Although willow tissues can accumulate relatively high Cd concentrations under high Cd levels (≥ 50 µM), they are not suitable for phytoextraction of Cd due to poor growth.


Salix genotypes Cadmium Hydroponic culture Phytoremediation 



This work was funded by the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31100513), the Key International Cooperative Project of CN-USA (Grant No. 2010DFB33960), the Key Project of Ningbo Science and Technology Bureau of Zhejiang Province (Grant No. 2012C10003), the Key project of Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2012BAC17B02) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities. We are thankful to Zhang Huaxian for her excellent technical assistance.


  1. Cosio C, Vollenweider P, Keller C (2006) Localization and effects of cadmium in leaves of a cadmium-tolerant willow (Salix viminalis L.) I. Macrolocalization and phytotoxic effects of cadmium. Environ Exp Bot 58:64–74. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dos Santos Utmazian MN, Wieshammer G, Vega R, Wenzel WW (2007) Hydroponic screening for metal resistance and accumulation of cadmium and zinc in twenty clones of willows and poplars. Environ Pollut 148:155–165. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ghnaya T, Nouairi I, Slama I, Messedi D, Grignonc C, Abdelly C, Ghorbel MH (2005) Cadmium effects on growth and mineral nutrition of two halophytes: Sesuvium portulacastrum and Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. J Plant Physiol 162:1133–1140. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Karp A, Hanley SJ, Trybush SO, Macalpine W, Pei M, Shield I (2011) Genetic improvement of willow for bioenergy and biofuels. J Integr Plant Biol 53:151–165. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Krantev A, Yordanova R, Janda T, Szalai G, Popova L (2008) Treatment with salicylic acid decreases the effect of cadmium on photosynthesis in maize plants. J Plant Physiol 165:920–931. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kuzovkina Y, Quigley MF (2004) Selection of willows for floral and stem quality and continuous production sequence in temperate North America. HortTechnology 14:415–419Google Scholar
  7. Kuzovkina YA, Volk TA (2009) The characterization of willow (Salix L.) varieties for use in ecological engineering applications: co-ordination of structure, function and autecology. Ecol Eng 35:1178–1189. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kuzovkina YA, Knee M, Quigley MF (2004) Cadmium and copper uptake and translocation in five willow (Salix L.) species. Int J Phytorem 6:269–287. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Liu J-N, Zhou Q-X, Sun T, Ma LQ, Wang S (2008) Growth responses of three ornamental plants to Cd and Cd–Pb stress and their metal accumulation characteristics. J Hazard Mater 151:261–267. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lux A, Šottníkova A, Opatrná J, Greger M (2004) Differences in structure of adventitious roots in Salix clones with contrasting characteristics of cadmium accumulation and sensitivity. Physiol Plant 120:537–545. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Moran R (1982) Formulae for determination of chlorophyllous pigments extracted with N,N-dimethylformamide. Plant Physiol 69:1376–1381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Pietrini F, Zacchini M, Iori V, Pietrosanti L, Ferretti M, Massacci A (2010) Spatial distribution of cadmium in leaves and its impact on photosynthesis: examples of different strategies in willow and poplar clones. Plant Biol 12:355–363. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Popova LP, Maslenkova LT, Yordanova RY, Ivanova AP, Krantev AP, Szalai G, Janda T (2009) Exogenous treatment with salicylic acid attenuates cadmium toxicity in pea seedlings. Plant Physiol Biochem 47:224–231. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Pulford I, Watson C (2003) Phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated land by trees—a review. Environ Int 29:529–540. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Watson C, Pulford I, Riddell-Black D (2003) Development of a hydroponic screening technique to assess heavy metal resistance in willow (Salix). Int J Phytorem 5:333–349. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Zacchini M, Pietrini F, Mugnozza GS, Iori V, Pietrosanti L, Massacci A (2009) Metal tolerance, accumulation and translocation in poplar and willow clones treated with cadmium in hydroponics. Water Air Soil Pollut 197:23–34. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Zhang X, Zhang S, Xu X, Li T, Gong G, Jia Y, Li Y (2010) Tolerance and accumulation characteristics of cadmium Amaranthus hybridus L. J Hazard Mater 180:303–308. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Zhivotovsky OP, Kuzovkina JA, Schulthess CP, Morris T, Pettinelli D, Ge M (2010) Hydroponic screening of willows (Salix L.) for lead tolerance and accumulation. Int J Phytorem 13:75–94. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource SciencesZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.Haikou Experimental StationChinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences (CATAS)HaikouChina
  3. 3.Ministry of Agriculture Danzhou Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Agro-Environment, Environment and Plant Protection InstituteChinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences (CATAS)HaikouChina
  4. 4.College of Agricultural Economy and TechnologyJiujiang Vocational UniversityJiujiangChina

Personalised recommendations